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Working Paper
Are State Governments Roadblocks to Federal Stimulus? Evidence on the Flypaper Effect of Highway Grants in the 2009 Recovery Act

We examine how state governments adjusted spending in response to the large temporary increase in federal grants under the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). We concentrate our analysis on ARRA highway grants, which were especially likely to crowd out states? own highway funding given the lack of matching requirements and according to past research on federal highway grants. The mechanism used to apportion ARRA highway grants to states allows us to isolate exogenous changes in these grants. In addition, we show that the original 1944 proposed layout of the interstate highway ...
Working Paper Series , Paper 2013-16

Conference Paper
Highway infrastructure: policy issues for regions

Assessing the Midwest Economy , Paper SL-2

Journal Article
Venturing along the road less traveled: Virginia's experience with a private toll road

Private entrepreneurship is giving birth to new lanes of travel, but the labor is proving painful. Lessons learned from this experience should make the creation of private toll roads easier in the future.
Cross Sections , Volume 12 , Issue Spr , Pages 13-19

Working Paper
Democracy to the road: the political economy of potholes

Are dictatorships more prone to build and maintain roads? This paper identifies a puzzling fact: countries that are more democratic tend to have roads in worse conditions than less democratic countries. Using lagged values of a democracy index to instrument for democracy in 1980 yields higher estimates of the magnitude of the association between democracy and bad roads. Instruments based on climate, population, and education yield similar results. The evidence points to a negative causal relationship from democracy to road quality. The author also finds that changes to a more democratic ...
Working Papers , Paper 02-17

Working Paper
Economic estimates of urban infrastructure needs

This paper, critical of commonly employed measures of capital spending needs, offers an alternative method for constructing needs estimates and tests the model using highway spending data for 10 midwestern urban counties.
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 8401

Conference Paper
What are the prospects for privatizing infrastructure? Lessons from U. S. roads and solid waste

Conference Series ; [Proceedings] , Volume 34 , Pages 143-182

Journal Article
Unlocking gridlock

FRBSF Economic Letter

Journal Article
On the road to Singapore

FRBSF Economic Letter

Journal Article
Economic history : Trade trailblazer : the National Road linked communities and helped expand America's western frontier

Econ Focus , Volume 7 , Issue Fall , Pages 36-39

Journal Article
The end of the \\"free\\" ride : tolls bring home the true cost of roads

Econ Focus , Volume 10 , Issue Spr , Pages 9-15


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