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Who is a Passive Saver Under Opt-In and Auto-Enrollment?
Defaults have been shown to have a powerful effect on retirement saving behavior yet there is limited research on who is most affected by defaults and whether this varies based on features of the choice environment. Using administrative data on employer-sponsored retirement accounts linked to survey data, we estimate the relationship between retirement saving choices and individual characteristics ? long-term discounting, present bias, financial literacy, and exponential-growth bias ? under two distinct choice environments: an opt-in regime and an auto-enrollment regime. Consistent with our ...