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Journal Article
COVID-19 Poses Risks for State and Local Public Pensions

If the coronavirus pandemic leads to a protracted recession, public pension funding could weaken further in the years to come. During the 2001 and 2007–09 recessions, investment returns failed to reach pension plans’ longer-term assumed returns, and shortfalls in state and local government budgets led some employers to temporarily reduce contributions. If pension funding falls during the current crisis, state and local governments may choose to adjust plan structures as they did after the Great Recession.
Economic Bulletin

Journal Article
Measuring real investment: trends in the United States and international comparisons

The standard measures of nominal capital formation suggest that the proportion of GDP the United States is dedicating to investment has been much lower than that of other developed countries throughout the last 25 years. By calculating the measures in real terms across countries and over time, authors Milka S. Kirova and Robert E. Lipsey show that the U.S. investment ratios have been rising over time, coming increasingly closer to those of other countries. Using a broader measure of capital formation that is more consonant with economic concepts, they show that U.S. investment has been close ...
Review , Issue Jan , Pages 3-18

Conference Paper
The lender's view of debt and equity: the case of pension funds

Conference Series ; [Proceedings] , Volume 33 , Pages 106-135

Journal Article
How long is a long-term investment?

Conventional wisdom tells us that stocks tend to outperform government bonds in the long term. That is, if stocks are held long enough, they are usually better investments because their total return is likely to be higher than the return on bonds. While this view may be correct in principle, in practice a crucial question remains: How long is long enough? The answer is important to every investor, not just the wealthy few. With employers relying increasingly on defined-contribution retirement plans, employees must make their own saving and investment decisions. ; Shen reviews historical ...
Economic Review , Volume 90 , Issue Q I , Pages 5-32

Journal Article
Investment and housing drive 1994 growth

Southwest Economy , Issue Jan , Pages 1-4

Journal Article
Government investment and the European stability and growth pact

The authors analyze whether it makes sense to treat public investment spending differently from other government spending when applying the deficit constraints mandated within the single European currency area. Given the low rates of population growth, mobility, and mortality in European countries, they find that excluding public investment from the computation of the deficit ceiling has only moderate implications for the current generations? spending choices. They also show that excluding net investment yields better outcomes than excluding gross investment.
Economic Perspectives , Volume 31 , Issue Q III , Pages 33-43

Journal Article
Triple-bottom line investing: balancing financial, social and environmental returns

Community Investments , Volume 20 , Issue Sum

Journal Article
Opt in or opt out?

Econ Focus , Volume 11 , Issue Win , Pages 28-31

Journal Article
Measuring and analyzing aggregate fluctuations: the importance of building from microeconomic evidence

Review , Issue May , Pages 55-78

Journal Article
The market to the rescue? The promise - and price - of the new social security investment proposals

Three new plans for reforming Social Security financing recommend investing a portion of future payroll deductions in the financial markets. The plans aim to shore up Social Security's trust fund, improve individual returns, and enhance national saving. This analysis concludes, however, that the effectiveness of the plans would depend largely on individual saving and investment decisions, government fiscal policy, and developments in the financial markets. In addition, the proposed reforms could expose the program to unprecedented market risk.
Current Issues in Economics and Finance , Volume 3 , Issue Aug



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