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Keywords:Financial crises 

Speech
Regulatory reform: lessons from the front line, 19th Annual Hyman P. Minsky Conference on the State of the U. S. and World Economies Organized by the Levy Economic Institute of Bard College, New York, New York, April 14, 2010

In a speech at the Minsky Conference on the State of the U.S. and World Economies, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland President and CEO Sandra Pianalto discussed consolidated supervision, an important, but sometimes overlooked, aspect of regulatory reform. She also described the criteria that she thinks should be used to define systemically important institutions and discussed a framework for ensuring financial firms are effectively supervised based on the risk they pose to the financial system. She concluded with an explanation of why it is vitally important for the Federal Reserve to remain ...
Speech , Paper 28

Working Paper
Income Inequality, Financial Crises, and Monetary Policy

We construct a general equilibrium model in which income inequality results in insufficient aggregate demand, deflation pressure, and excessive credit growth by allocating income to agents featuring low marginal propensity to consume, and if excessive, can lead to an endogenous financial crisis. This economy generates distributions for equilibrium prices and quantities that are highly skewed to the downside due to financial crises and the liquidity trap. Consequently, symmetric monetary policy rules designed to minimize fluctuations around fixed means become inefficient. A simultaneous ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2018-048

Speech
The U.S. economic outlook

Remarks at the Washington and Lee University H. Parker Willis Lecture in Political Economics, Lexington, Virginia.
Speech , Paper 20

Report
The Federal Reserve's Commercial Paper Funding Facility

The Federal Reserve created the Commercial Paper Funding Facility (CPFF) in the midst of severe disruptions in money markets following the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers on September 15, 2008. The CPFF finances the purchase of highly rated unsecured and asset-backed commercial paper from eligible issuers via primary dealers. The facility is a liquidity backstop to U.S. issuers of commercial paper, and its creation was part of a range of policy actions undertaken by the Federal Reserve to provide liquidity to the financial system. This paper documents aspects of the financial crisis relevant to ...
Staff Reports , Paper 423

Working Paper
Financial fragility and the exchange rate regime

We study financial fragility, exchange rate crises, and monetary policy in an open economy version of a Diamond-Dybvig model. The banking system, the exchange rate regime, and central bank credit policy are seen as parts of a mechanism intended to maximize social welfare; if the mechanism fails, banking crises and speculative attacks become possible. We compare currency boards, fixed rates, and flexible rates with and without a lender of last resort. A currency board cannot implement a socially optimal allocation; in addition, bank runs are possible under a currency board. A fixed exchange ...
FRB Atlanta Working Paper , Paper 97-16

Journal Article
Optimal deposit contracts: do-it-yourself bank-run prevention for banks

The need for federal deposit insurance is often based on the claim that it prevents bank runs and makes the banking system more stable. But research shows that banks could prevent bank runs by constructing their deposit contracts appropriately, and, in the absence of deposit insurance, they would do so in their own self interest. Federal deposit insurance may be useful as insurance per se?protecting depositors against unforeseen accidents?but it should not be considered necessary for banking system stability.
Economic Commentary , Issue Jan

Conference Paper
Commentary: monetary policy after the fall.

Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole

Journal Article
The credit crunch of 2007-2008: a discussion of the background, market reactions, and policy responses

This paper discusses the events surrounding the 2007-08 credit crunch. It highlights the period of exceptional macrostability, the global savings glut, and financial innovation in mortgage-backed securities as the precursors to the crisis. The credit crunch itself occurred when house prices fell and subprime mortgage defaults increased. These events caused investors to reappraise the risks of high-yielding securities, bank failures, and sharp increases in the spreads on funds in interbank markets. The paper evaluates the actions of the authorities that provided liquidity to the markets and ...
Review , Volume 90 , Issue Sep , Pages 531-568

Journal Article
Predicting crises, part II: Did anything matter (to everybody)?

The enormity of the current financial collapse raises the question whether the crisis could have been predicted. This is the second of two Economic Letters on the topic. This Letter examines research suggesting that early warning models would not have accurately predicted the relative severity of the current crisis across countries, casting doubt on the ability of such models to forecast similar crises in the future.
FRBSF Economic Letter

Report
Federal Reserve liquidity provision during the financial crisis of 2007-2009

This paper examines the Federal Reserve's unprecedented liquidity provision during the financial crisis of 2007-2009. It first reviews how the Fed provides liquidity in normal times. It then explains how the Fed's new and expanded liquidity facilities were intended to enable the central bank to fulfill its traditional lender-of-last-resort role during the crisis while mitigating stigma, broadening the set of institutions with access to liquidity, and increasing the flexibility with which institutions could tap such liquidity. The paper then assesses the growing empirical literature on the ...
Staff Reports , Paper 563

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