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Keywords:Federal home loan banks 

Journal Article
Commercial banks’ borrowing from the Federal Home Loan Bank

Since 1990, when commercial banks were first eligible to join the Federal Home Loan Bank System, they have become an important constituency of the FHLBs. Currently, seven out of 10 banks are members, and nearly half of all banks have advances outstanding. Given the wide range of activities that commercial banks can engage in, this Commentary asks whether FHLB lending to them is consistent with their traditional housing finance mission, with the Gramm-Leach-Bliley extension of their mission to provide liquidity support to community banks, or with both.
Economic Commentary , Issue Jul

Working Paper
Federal Home Loan Bank lending to community banks: are targeted subsidies necessary?

The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 extended the lending authority of Federal Home Loan Banks to include advances secured by small-enterprise loans of community financial institutions. The authors examine three possible reasons for the extension of this selective credit subsidy to community banks and thrifts, including the need to subsidize community depository institutions, stabilize the Federal Home Loan Banks, and address a market failure for small enterprise loans in rural banking markets. They use two empirical models to investigate whether funding constraints affect small-business ...
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 0112

Journal Article
Fannie Mae’s and Freddie Mac’s changing roles and reform initiatives

Financial Update , Volume 15 , Issue Apr , Pages 5

Working Paper
The Federal Home Loan Bank System: the lender of next-to-last resort?

The Federal Home Loan Bank (FHLB) System is a large, complex, and understudied government-sponsored liquidity facility that currently has more than $1 trillion in secured loans outstanding, mostly to commercial banks and thrifts. This paper first documents the significant role played by the FHLB System at the outset of the ongoing financial crisis and then provides evidence about the uses of these funds by their bank and thrift members. We then identify the trade-offs faced by FHLB member-borrowers when choosing between accessing the FHLB System or the Federal Reserve's discount window during ...
FRB Atlanta Working Paper , Paper 2009-04

Working Paper
Federal Home Loan Bank advances and commercial bank portfolio composition

The primary mission of the 12 cooperatively owned Federal Home Loan Banks (FHLBs) is to provide their members financial products and services to assist and enhance member housing finance. In this paper, we consider the role of the FHLBs' traditional product--"advances," or collateralized loans to members--in stabilizing commercial bank members' residential mortgage lending activities. ; Our theoretical model shows that using membership criteria (such as a minimum of 10 percent of the portfolio being in mortgage-related assets) or using mortgage-related assets as collateral does not ensure ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2007-31

Conference Paper
A summary of \"Federal Home Loan Bank advances and commercial bank portfolio composition\"

Proceedings , Paper 1057

Journal Article
Federal Home Loan Bank mortgage purchases: Implications for mortgage markets

The Federal Home Loan Bank (FHLB) System is a government-sponsored enterprise created by Congress to support residential housing finance. Historically, the twelve regional wholesale banks that constitute the FHLB System have pursued this goal by making loans to their depository institution members secured by residential mortgage loans. In 1997, however, the Federal Home Loan Bank of Chicago began purchasing pools of conforming mortgages under its Mortgage Partnership Finance Program. Today, nine FHLBs offer this program, and the remaining three offer their own Mortgage Purchase Programs. ; ...
Economic Review , Volume 88 , Issue Q3 , Pages 17-31

Conference Paper
GSEs: why is effective government supervision hard to achieve?

Proceedings , Paper 704

Conference Paper
GSEs as instruments of federal policy: public benefits and public costs

Proceedings , Paper 705

Journal Article
Access to FHLBank advances and the performance of thrift institutions

This article examines thrift financial data from 1985 to 1991 and finds that financially distressed thrifts, especially those benefiting from regulatory forbearance policies, tended to borrow more from Federal Home Loan Banks. The authors also find that the stock returns of distressed thrifts reflected the subsidized rates at which they were able to borrow from the Federal Savings and Loan Corporation.
Economic Perspectives , Volume 22 , Issue Q II


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