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Keywords:Emigration and immigration 

Working Paper
Local, open economies within the U.S.: how do industries respond to immigration?

A series of studies has found that relative wages and employment rates in different local labor markets of the US are surprisingly unaffected by local factor supplies. This paper evaluates two explanations for this puzzling empirical fact: (1) Interregional trade mitigates the local impact of supply shocks. (2) Production technology rapidly adapts to the local mix of workers. The author tests these alternative explanations by estimating the effect of increases in relative supplies of particular skill groups on the relative growth rates of different industries and on the relative utilization ...
Working Papers , Paper 04-1

Working Paper
Immigration, remittances and business cycles

We use data on border enforcement and macroeconomic indicators from the U.S. and Mexico to estimate a two-country business cycle model of labor migration and remittances. The model matches the cyclical dynamics of labor migration to the U.S. and documents how remittances to Mexico serve an insurance role to smooth consumption across the border. During expansions in the destination economy, immigration increases with the expected stream of future wage gains, but it is dampened by a sunk migration cost that reflects the intensity of border enforcement. During recessions, established migrants ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 998

Working Paper
How does labor mobility affect income convergence?

The neoclassical growth model is extended to allow for mobile labor. Following a negative shock to a small economy's capital stock, capital and labor frictions effect an equilibrium transition path during which wages remain below their steady-state level. Outmigration directly contributes to faster income convergence but also creates a disincentive for gross capital formation. The net result is that across a wide range of calibrations, the speed of income convergence is relatively insensitive to the degree of labor mobility.
Research Working Paper , Paper 99-12

Working Paper
The impact of illegal immigration and enforcement on border crime rates

Border crime rates lie consistently below the national average. In the 1990s, however, while there as a large decline in property-related crime along the U.S.-Mexico border, violent crime rates began to converge to the national average. At the same time, legal and illegal immigration from Mexico surged and border enforcement rose to unprecedented levels. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between border county crime rates, immigration and enforcement since the early 1990s. We find that while the volume of illegal immigration is not related to changes in property-related crime, ...
Working Papers , Paper 0303

Journal Article
Welfare and the locational choices of new immigrants

The 1996 welfare law ends most noncitizens' eligibility for federally funded public assistance programs and allows states to cut off payments under other welfare programs to noncitizens. If some states choose to continue extending benefits while others terminate payments to immigrants, interstate differentials in welfare generosity will widen. Potential policy differences create concern that states that continue to offer benefits to immigrants will become welfare magnets. ; In this article, Madeline Zavodny examines whether welfare generosity is correlated with the number of new immigrants ...
Economic and Financial Policy Review , Issue Q II , Pages 2-10

Conference Paper
Trade, migration, and economic development: the risks and rewards of openness

This paper argues that openness to migration is heavily dependent upon (1) ideational and institutional factors, especially the willingness of states to guarantee a minimum basket of rights for migrants; (2) domestic political coalitions and alignments that are driven in part by factor proportions and intensities; and (3) the structure of the international system, including the presence or absence of international regimes. In contrast to transnational or globalization arguments about the weakening of state sovereignty, this paper offers evidence in support of a neoliberal argument that ...
Proceedings

Journal Article
Still heading West

FRBSF Economic Letter

Journal Article
The new New Englanders

Regional Review , Issue Win , Pages 12-18

Speech
Economic challenges

"While it seems pretty clear that economic momentum is slowing, the jury is out on whether lesser momentum will be sufficient to translate into relief on the price front over the intermediate to longer term. In East Texas parlance, 'It might could but it mightn't'; it most definitely has not thus far." ; Remarks before the Greater Houston Partnership, Houston, Texas, September 4, 2008.
Speeches and Essays , Paper 23

Journal Article
The internationalization of the U.S. labor market and the wage structure

The increasing internationalization of the U.S. labor market has had important effects on the wage structure. Immigration has probably increased wage inequality because recent immigrant waves tend to be less skilled than earlier waves. Growing trade deficits in durable goods have also increased wage inequality by reducing the relatively high wages of less-skilled workers in these industries and by displacing workers from them.
Economic Policy Review , Issue Jan , Pages 3-8

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