Why financial stability is a necessary prerequisite for an effective monetary policy
Remarks at the Andrew Crockett Memorial Lecture, Bank for International Settlements 2013 Annual General Meeting, Basel, Switzerland.
Optimal money demand in a heterogeneous-agent cash-in-advance economy
Heterogeneity matters. This point is illustrated in a heterogeneous-agent, cash-in-advance economy where money serves both as a medium of exchange and as a store of value (as in Lucas, 1980). It is shown that heterogeneity can lead to dramatically different implications of monetary policies from those under the representative-agent assumption, including (i) the velocity of money is not constant but highly volatile, as in the data; (ii) lump-sum transitory money injections have expansionary effects on aggregate output despite flexible prices; and (iii) the welfare cost of anticipated inflation ...
Identification of dynamic economic models from reduced form VECM structures: an application of covariance restrictions
This analysis is a straightforward implementation of both long-run and short-run identifying or overidentifying restrictions on a vector error correction model in the "structural VAR" framework. The framework utilizes covariance restrictions, long-run multiplier restrictions, error correction coefficient restrictions, and restrictions on slope coefficients of the stimultaneous interactions in the "economic model." The framework is general enough to incorporate restrictions on impact multipliers. Two examples are provided. The first example is a dynamic M2 demand specification with a ...
Measurement error and a reinterpretation of the conventional money demand regression
It has been sixteen years since a partial adjustment model was first applied in empirical money demand studies by Chow . Since then the partial adjustment specification has become widely used, particularly in quarterly money demand studies. However, in spite of its widespread use, the theoretical rationalization for the partial adjustment specification has never been entirely satisfactory.
\\"Here, dollars, dollars ...\\"estimating currency demand and worldwide currency substitution
In measuring the percentage of foreign-held U.S., German, and Swiss currencies for the period of the 1960s through the 1990s, I obtain estimates much different from those of others. Using currency demand equations implied by cointegrating vectors for Canada, the Netherlands, and Austria, I estimate that in 1996 only 30% of U.S. currency was held outside the United States, and as much as 69% of German currency was held outside Germany. The U.S. estimate falls slowly over the 1960s, reaching a low of 5% in the first half of the 1970s, then rises through the early 1980s and again during the ...
Putting \\"M\\" back in monetary policy
Money demand and the stock of money have all but disappeared from monetary policy analyses. This paper is an empirical contribution to the debate over the role of money in monetary policy analysis. The paper models supply and demand interactions in the money market and finds evidence of an essential role for money in the transmission of policy. Across sub-samples, it finds evidence consistent with the following inferences: (1) the money stock and the interest rate jointly transmit monetary policy; (2) for a given exogenous change in the nominal interest rate, the estimated impact of policy on ...
Constructive data mining: modeling Argentine broad money demand
This paper assesses the empirical merits of PcGets and Autometrics--two recent algorithms for computer-automated model selection--using them to improve upon Kamin and Ericsson's (1993) model of Argentine broad money demand. The selected model is an economically sensible and statistically satisfactory error correction model, in which cointegration between money, inflation, the interest rate, and exchange rate depreciation depends on the inclusion of a "ratchet" variable that captures irreversible effects of inflation. Short-run dynamics differ markedly from the long run. Algorithmically ...
Money demand and equity markets
Money demand in part reflects a portfolio decision. As equities have become a significant store of household wealth, it seems plausible that variations in equity markets could affect money demand. We re-specify a standard money demand equation to include stock market volatility and revisions to analyst earnings projections. We find that these equity market variables are statistically significant and reduce the errors from money demand models.
Likelihood-preserving normalization in multiple equation models
Causal analysis in multiple equation models often revolves around the evaluation of the effects of an exogenous shift in a structural equation. When taking into account the uncertainty implied by the shape of the likelihood, we argue that how normalization is implemented matters for inferential conclusions around the maximum likelihood (ML) estimates of such effects. We develop a general method that eliminates the distortion of finite-sample inferences about these ML estimates after normalization. We show that our likelihood-preserving normalization always maintains coherent economic ...
An incentive-compatible suggestion for seigniorage sharing with dollarizing countries
Sixteen countries now treat the U.S. dollar as legal tender. Although dollarizing can help emerging-market countries gain monetary credibility and avoid currency crises, many do not want to give up the seigniorage revenues associated with issuing their own fiat currency. This article offers a proposal for seigniorage sharing.