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Conference Paper
Importing technology

We look at disaggregated imports of various types of equipment to make inferences on cross-country differences in the composition of equipment investment. We make three contributions. First, we document large differences in investment composition. Second, we explain these differences as being based on each equipment type's intrinsic efficiency, as well as on its degree of complementarity with other factors whose abundance differs across countries. Third, we examine the implications of investment composition for development accounting, i.e., explaining the cross-country variation in income per ...
Proceedings , Issue Nov

Journal Article
Challenges in economic capital modeling

Financial institutions are increasingly using economic capital models to help determine the amount of capital they need to absorb unexpected losses. These models typically aggregate capital based on business-level analysis. However, important challenges surround this aggregation as well as other aspects of these models. Supervisors could use these capital calculations when they assess capital adequacy, but they need to be aware of these modeling issues.
FRBSF Economic Letter

Working Paper
Intangible capital and economic growth

Published macroeconomic data traditionally exclude most intangible investment from measured GDP. This situation is beginning to change, but our estimates suggest that as much as $800 billion is still excluded from U.S. published data (as of 2003), and that this leads to the exclusion of more than $3 trillion of business intangible capital stock. To assess the importance of this omission, we add intangible capital to the standard sources-of-growth framework used by the BLS, and find that the inclusion of our list of intangible assets makes a significant difference in the observed patterns of ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2006-24

Journal Article
The formation of private business capital: trends, recent developments, and measurement issues

Federal Reserve Bulletin , Issue Dec , Pages 771-783

Journal Article
Does regulation drive innovation?

Economic Perspectives , Volume 12 , Issue Mar

Working Paper
The role of credit market competition on lending strategies and on capital accumulation

This paper examines the role of credit market competition in the dynamic of capital accumulation. It is shown that the lending relationship problem which seems to characterize competitive credit markets can have negative repercussions for capital accumulation. In contrast, monopoly power in banking can be beneficial for growth. A monopolist bank may lower the equilibrium quantity of credit, but it allows a better allocation of credit supply. This result reconciles with the available empirical evidence and suggests a positive role for monopoly power in banking, especially for developing ...
Working Paper Series, Issues in Financial Regulation , Paper WP-97-14

Journal Article
Capital requirements for financial firms

One of the reforms proposed for preventing financial crises is to require financial institutions to hold more capital. There are a number of unresolved issues related to such a requirement, ranging from the costs of increased capital requirements to the best way to structure them. Some of this research was presented at a recent conference, and we discuss the major findings in this Commentary.
Economic Commentary , Issue Nov

Working Paper
Asymmetric adjustment costs, capital longevity, and investment

Working Paper Series / Economic Activity Section , Paper 119

Working Paper
A risk-factor model foundation for ratings-based bank capital rules

When economic capital is calculated using a portfolio model of credit value-at-risk, the marginal capital requirement for an instrument depends, in general, on the properties of the portfolio in which it is held. By contrast, ratings-based capital rules, including both the current Basel Accord and its proposed revision, assign a capital charge to an instrument based only on its own characteristics. I demonstrate that ratings-based capital rules can be reconciled with the general class of credit VaR models. Contributions to VaR are portfolio-invariant only if (a) there is only a single ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2002-55

Working Paper
Learning and excess volatility

We introduce adaptive learning behavior into a general equilibrium lifecycle economy with capital accumulation. Agents form forecasts of the rate of return to capital assets using least squares autoregressions on past data. We show that, in contrast to the perfect foresight dynamics, the dynamical system under learning possesses equilibria characterized by persistent excess volatility in returns to capital. We explore a quantitative case for these learning equilibria. We use an evolutionary search algorithm to calibrate a version of the system under learning and show that this system can ...
Working Papers , Paper 1998-016



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