The political economy of deregulation: evidence from the relaxation of bank branching restrictions in the United States
This paper provides a positive political economy analysis of deregulation, focusing on the recent removal of barriers to bank branching. Intra- and inter- state branching restrictions had been in place in most states for more than a century but have largely disappeared during the last 25 years. Branching restrictions primarily benefit small and inefficient banks against competition from large and efficient banks. Competing financial institutions not subject to the branching laws also benefit from restrictions on their rivals. Consumer and small businesses, however, tend to be harmed by ...
Bank branch presence and access to credit in low-to-moderate income neighborhoods
Banks specialize in lending to informationally opaque borrowers by collecting soft information about them. Some researchers claim that this process requires a physical presence in the market to lower information collection costs. The author provides evidence in support of this argument in the mortgage market for low-income borrowers. Mortgage originations increase and interest spreads decline when there is a bank branch located in a low-to-moderate income neighborhood.
Competition, product differentiation and quality provision: an empirical equilibrium analysis of bank branching decisions
We analyze the effects of market structure on the branching decisions of three types of depository institution: multimarket banks, single-market banks, and thrift institutions. We argue that additional branches increase quality for an institution's consumers, and examine the interaction between market structure and this particular measure of quality. We account for endogenous market structure using an equilibrium structural model, which corrects for bias caused by correlation in the unobservables that may drive entry and branching activity. We estimate the model using data from over 1,750 ...
Risks in U.S. bank international exposures
U.S. banks have substantial exposure to foreign markets such as Europe and Latin America. In this paper, we show how the amounts and forms of these exposures have evolved over time and note the changes in embodied risks taken through banks' cross-border activity, local claims, and derivative positions. Our findings vary with the type of U.S. bank. Compared with other banks, money-center banks tend to have a greater share of their assets in foreign exposures. Some of money-center banks' exposure to riskier countries, particularly Latin American countries, is achieved through the activities of ...
Regulation and bank failures: new evidence from the agricultural collapse of the 1920's
This article examines the contribution of government policies to the high number of bank failures in the United States during the l920s. I consider the state of Kansas, which had a system of voluntary deposit insurance and where branch banking was strictly prohibited, and find that bank failure rates were highest in counties suffering the greatest agricultural distress and where deposit insurance system membership was the highest. The evidence for Kansas illustrates how prohibitions on branch banking caused unit banks to be especially susceptible to local economic shocks, and suggests that, ...
Potential employment effects of the restructuring of retail banking
The author explains that two steps being taken by banks to restructure their branch systems--the substitution of supermarket branches for traditional offices and the expansion of telephone banking through twenty-four-hour phone centers--may adversely affect employment in New York State as well as across the country.