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Liquidity in U.S. fixed income markets: a comparison of the bid-ask spread in corporate, government and municipal bond markets

We examine the determinants of the realized bid-ask spread in the U.S. corporate, municipal and government bond markets for the years 1995 to 1997, based on newly available transactions data. Overall, we find that liquidity is an important determinant of the realized bid-ask spread in all three markets. Specifically, in all markets, the realized bid-ask spread decreases in the trading volume. Additionally, risk factors are important in the corporate and municipal markets. In these markets, the bid-ask spread increases in the remaining-time-to maturity of a bond. The corporate bond spread also ...
Staff Reports , Paper 73

Is There a Trade-Off Between Low Bond Risk Premiums and Financial Stability?

It has been suggested that financial instability may be more likely following periods of low bond market risk premiums. The timing of past episodes of instability casts doubt upon the hypothesis that low levels of risk premiums sow the seeds of future instability.
Chicago Fed Letter , Issue Aug

Journal Article
How important is the inflation risk premium?

Investors and market analysts generally believe that the yield on a nominal bond includes an inflation risk premium to compensate investors for bearing the inflation risk associated with the bond. Knowing how much of a risk premium investors require on nominal bonds can be valuable information for policymakers. For government Treasuries, the size of the risk premium represents the potential interest savings for governments when nominal securities are replaced with real, or inflation-indexed, securities. And, because the inflation risk premium reflects perceived inflation uncertainty, changes ...
Economic Review , Volume 83 , Issue Q IV , Pages 35-47

A three-factor econometric model of the U.S. term structure

We estimate and test a model of the U.S. term structure that fits both the time series of interest rates and the cross-sectional shapes of the yield and volatility curves. In the model, three unobserved factors drive a stochastic discount process that prices assets so as to rule out arbitrage opportunities. The resulting bond yields are conveniently affine in the factors. We use monthly zero-coupon yield data from January 1986 to March 1996 and estimate the model by applying a Kalman filter that takes into account the model's no-arbitrage restrictions and using only three maturities at a ...
Research Paper , Paper 9619

Societal benefits of nominal bonds

In this paper, I provide a possible explanation of why nominally risk-free bonds are essential in monetary economies. I argue that the role of nominal bonds is to serve as record-keeping devices in intertemporal exchanges of money. I show that bonds can only serve this role if they are illiquid (costly to exchange for goods). Finally, I show that in economies in which nominal bonds are essential, welfare and nominal interest rates are both positively associated with the supply of illiquid bonds (if that supply is small).
Staff Report , Paper 275

Pricing the term structure with linear regressions

We estimate the time series and cross section of bond returns by way of three-stage ordinary least squares, which we label dynamic Fama-MacBeth regressions. Our approach allows for estimation of models with a large number of pricing factors. Even though we do not impose yield cross-equation restrictions in the estimation, we show that our bond return regressions generate a term structure of interest rates with small yield errors when compared with commonly reported specifications. We uncover specifications that give rise to lower pricing errors than do commonly advocated specifications, both ...
Staff Reports , Paper 340

Working Paper
How long do junk bonds spend in default?

Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 94-16

Journal Article
Determinants of individual tax-exempt bond yields : a survey of the evidence

An abstract for this article is not available.
Economic Review , Volume 68 , Issue May , Pages 14-39

Journal Article
Has bank performance peaked?

FRBSF Economic Letter

Journal Article
The stock market: too high? too low? just right

The Region , Volume 15 , Issue Jun , Pages 8-10



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