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Keywords:Banks and banking - History 

Journal Article
The evolution of banks and financial intermediation: framing the analysis

This is the introduction to a volume which explores the changing role of banks in the financial intermediation process. It accompanies a Liberty Street Blog series. Both discuss the complexity of the credit intermediation chain associated with securitization and note the growing participation of nonbank entities within it. These series also discuss implications for monitoring and rulemaking going forward. In the introduction, Nicola Cetorelli introduces the series and provides a preview of the topics covered. Additionally, he lays out the overarching theme of the volume?the fact that banks ...
Economic Policy Review , Volume 18 , Issue Jul , Pages 1-12

Journal Article
Why did FDR's bank holiday succeed?

After a month-long run on American banks, Franklin Delano Roosevelt proclaimed a Bank Holiday, beginning March 6, 1933, that shut down the banking system. When the banks reopened on March 13, depositors stood in line to return their hoarded cash. This article attributes the success of the Bank Holiday and the remarkable turnaround in the public's confidence to the Emergency Banking Act, passed by Congress on March 9, 1933. Roosevelt used the emergency currency provisions of the Act to encourage the Federal Reserve to create de facto 100 percent deposit insurance in the reopened banks. The ...
Economic Policy Review , Volume 15 , Issue Jul , Pages 19-30

A survey of the origins and purposes of deposit protection programs

Research Paper , Paper 9034

The American origin of the separation of banking and commerce

Research Paper , Paper 9309

Journal Article
The new thrift act: mending the safety net

Business Review , Issue Nov , Pages 3-8

Journal Article
Early state banks in the United States: how many were there and where did they exist?

This article describes a newly constructed data set of all U.S. state banks from 1782 to 1861. It contains the names and locations of all banks and branches that went into business and an estimate of when each operated. The compilation is based on reported balance sheets, listings in banknote reporters, and secondary sources. Based on these data, the article presents a count of the number of banks and branches in business by state. I argue that my series are superior to previously existing ones for reasons of consistency, accuracy, and timing. The article contains examples to support this ...
Quarterly Review , Volume 30 , Issue Sep , Pages 28-40

Journal Article
A visible hand: the Fed's involvement in the check payments system

It is common knowledge that the Federal Reserve System was originally set up to provide the nation with a stable currency and a sound banking system. Less well known, however, is why the Fed was given an operating role in the nation's payments system. In this article, James N. Duprey and Clarence W. Nelson describe the problems of the check payments system before the Fed was created, suggest reasons why the private sector was unable to resolve them, and indicate how the framers of the Federal Reserve Act intended to have the Fed resolve them. Duprey and Nelson argue that while a unified ...
Quarterly Review , Volume 10 , Issue Spr , Pages 18-29

Journal Article
The Suffolk Bank and the Panic of 1837

The Suffolk Bank in Boston is well known as having been the clearinghouse for virtually all the banknotes that circulated in New England between 1836 and 1858. An examination of 19th century bank balance sheets shows that during and after the U.S. banking Panic of 1837, this private commercial bank also provided some services that today are provided by central banks. These include lending reserves to other banks (providing a discount window) and keeping the payments system operating. Because of Suffolk's activities, banks in New England fared better than banks elsewhere during the Panic of ...
Quarterly Review , Volume 24 , Issue Spr , Pages 3-13

Journal Article
Banking without deposit insurance or bank panics: lessons from a model of the U.S. national banking system

Quarterly Review , Volume 13 , Issue Sum , Pages 3-19

Journal Article
Bank failures, financial restrictions, and aggregate fluctuations: Canada and the United States, 1870-1913

During 1870_1913, Canada had a well-diversified branch banking system while banks in the U.S. unit-banking system were less diversified. Canadian banks could issue large-denomination notes with no restrictions on their backing, while all U.S. currency was essentially an obligation of the U.S. government. Also, experience in the two countries with regard to bank failures and panics was quite different. A general equilibrium business cycle model with endogenous financial intermediation is constructed that captures these historical Canadian and American monetary and banking arrangements as ...
Quarterly Review , Volume 13 , Issue Sum , Pages 20-40



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