The evolution of retail EFT networks
ATM fees: does bank size matter?
ATM networks have allowed banks to charge non-customers for withdrawing money from their ATMs since 1996, but ATM surcharges have been criticized repeatedly by consumer advocates and politicians. Large banks have been especially targeted, because they are more likely to impose the fees and their fees tend to be higher than those charged by small banks. However, surveys comparing ATM fees across financial institutions do not control for differences in quality among banks of various sizes. ; This article analyzes differences in ATM fees among banks in order to test whether large banks impose ...
Compatibility and pricing with indirect network effects: evidence from ATMs
Incompatibility in markets with indirect network effects can reduce consumers? willingness to pay if they value ?mix and match? combinations of complementary network components. For integrated firms selling complementary components, incompatibility should also strengthen the demand-side link between components. In this paper, we examine the effects of incompatibility using data from a classic market with indirect network effects: Automated Teller Machines (ATMs). Our sample covers a period during which higher ATM fees increased incompatibility between ATM cards and other banks? ATM machines. ...
The welfare consequences of ATM surcharges: evidence from a structural entry model
We estimate a structural model of the market for automatic teller machines (ATMs) in order to evaluate the implications of regulating ATM surcharges on ATM entry and consumer and producer surplus. We estimate the model using data on firm and consumer locations, and identify the parameters of the model by exploiting a source of local quasi?experimental variation, that the state of Iowa banned ATM surcharges during our sample period while the state of Minnesota did not. We develop new econometric methods that allow us to estimate the parameters of equilibrium models without computing ...
Who uses electronic banking?
This study uses the 1995 Survey of Consumer Finances to examine households' use of technologies, including electronic means, to carry out transactions at a financial institution and to gain information for making saving and borrowing decisions. Household use of various technologies is correlated with household income, financial assets, age, and years of education. Results suggest that relatively new electronic technologies are used by relatively few households, and that household use of electronic sources of information for financial decisionmaking is barely off the ground.
The impact of technology adoption on market structure
To surcharge or not to surcharge: an empirical investigation of ATM pricing
This paper investigates depository institutions' decisions whether or not to impose surcharges (direct usage fees) on non-depositors who use their ATMs. In addition to documenting patterns of surcharging, we examine motives for surcharging, including both direct generation of fee revenue and the potential to attract deposit customers who wish to avoid incurring surcharges at an institution's ATMs. Consistent with expectations, we find that the probability of surcharging increases with both the institution's share of market ATMs and the time since surcharging was first allowed in the state, ...
Incompatibility and investment in ATM networks
The literature on network industries and network effects notes that incompatibility across rival systems can influence firms' incentives to invest in product changes that are beneficial to the consumer. We investigate this phenomenon in the case of bank ATM networks, where the number of ATM locations serves as the measure of product quality and surcharge fees serve as an index of incompatibility. Using as a natural experiment the lifting of a surcharge ban in Iowa (and not in neighboring states), we find that the associated increase in incompatibility for Iowa banks caused a substantial ...
Consumer use of automated teller machines