Asset building and the wealth gap
Building and maintaining financial security is increasingly difficult for a growing portion of American households. Wealth is less prevalent in middle-class households and increasing among the already well-to-do. At the same time, poverty is growing and concentrating disproportionately among the nonwhite population. As the cost of living outpaces income and wealth accumulation, a majority of U.S. households are ill-prepared for financial emergencies or retirement.
AUTHORS: Office, Community Affairs
Repurchase agreements and Federal funds
AUTHORS: Smith, Wayne
Financial amplification of foreign exchange risk premia
Theories of systemic risk suggest that financial intermediaries? balance-sheet constraints amplify fundamental shocks. We provide supporting evidence for such theories by decomposing the U.S. dollar risk premium into components associated with macroeconomic fundamentals and a component associated with financial intermediaries? balance sheets. Relative to the benchmark model with only macroeconomic state variables, balance sheets amplify the U.S. dollar risk premium. We discuss applications to systemic risk monitoring.
AUTHORS: Adrian, Tobias; Etula, Erkko; Groen, Jan J. J.
Financial intermediary leverage and value at risk
We study a contracting model for the determination of leverage and balance sheet size for financial intermediaries that fund their activities through collateralized borrowing. The model gives rise to two features: First, leverage is procyclical in the sense that leverage is high when the balance sheet is large. Second, leverage and balance sheet size are both determined by the riskiness of assets. For U.S. investment banks, we find empirical support for both features of our model, that is, leverage is procyclical, and both leverage and balance sheet size are determined by measured risks. In a system context, increased risk reduces the debt capacity of the financial system as a whole, giving rise to amplified de-leveraging by institutions by way of the chain of repo transactions in the financial system.
AUTHORS: Adrian, Tobias; Shin, Hyun Song
Funding liquidity risk and the cross-section of stock returns
We derive equilibrium pricing implications from an intertemporal capital asset pricing model where the tightness of financial intermediaries? funding constraints enters the pricing kernel. We test the resulting factor model in the cross-section of stock returns. Our empirical results show that stocks that hedge against adverse shocks to funding liquidity earn lower average returns. The pricing performance of our three-factor model is surprisingly strong across specifications and test assets, including portfolios sorted by industry, size, book-to-market, momentum, and long-term reversal. Funding liquidity can thus account for well-known asset pricing anomalies.
AUTHORS: Adrian, Tobias; Etula, Erkko
How "unconventional" are large-scale asset purchases? The impact of monetary policy on asset prices
This paper examines the impact of large-scale asset purchases (LSAP) on U.S. asset prices (nominal and inflation-indexed bonds, stocks, and U.S. dollar spot exchange rates) using an event study with intraday data. The surprise component of LSAP announcements is identified from Financial Times articles. Estimation results show that the LSAP news has economically large and highly significant effects on asset prices, even after controlling for the surprise component of the Fed's conventional target rate decision and communication about its future path of policy. This study documents that the cumulative financial market impact of the Fed's LSAP program is equivalent to an unanticipated cut in the federal funds target rate that ranges between zero (for three-month yields) and 197 basis points (for ten-year yields), with the response of stock prices and foreign exchanges lying within this interval. These point estimates are, however, surrounded by considerable uncertainty. By looking at the cross-asset reactions, this work concludes that, for most U.S. asset prices, the effects of asset purchases are not statistically different from an unanticipated cut in the fed funds target rate. Finally, the response of U.K. asset prices (excepting FTSE 100 stocks) to the Bank of England's gilt purchases is quantitatively similar to the reaction of U.S. asset prices to the Fed's asset purchases.
AUTHORS: Rosa, Carlo
Measuring financial asset return and volatility spillovers, with application to global equity markets
The authors provide a simple and intuitive measure of interdependence of asset returns and/or volatilities. In particular, they formulate and examine precise and separate measures of return spillovers and volatility spillovers. The authors framework facilitates study of both noncrisis and crisis episodes, including trends and bursts in spillovers, and both turn out to be empirically important. In particular, in an analysis of 19 global equity markets from the early 1990s to the present, they find striking evidence of divergent behavior in the dynamics of return spillovers vs. volatility spillovers: Return spillovers display a gently increasing trend but no bursts, whereas volatility spillovers display no trend but clear bursts.
AUTHORS: Diebold, Francis X.; Yilmaz, Kamil
Liquid assets and expenditure plans of farm operators
AUTHORS: Holthausen, Duncan McC.
Liquid asset holdings of individuals and businesses
Size and value anomalies under regime shifts
This paper finds strong evidence of time-variations in the joint distribution of returns on a stock market portfolio and portfolios tracking size- and value effects. Mean returns, volatilities and correlations between these equity portfolios are found to be driven by underlying regimes that introduce short-run market timing opportunities for investors. The magnitude of the premia on the size and value portfolios and their hedging properties are found to vary significantly across regimes. Regimes are also found to have a large impact on the optimal asset allocation - especially under rebalancing - and on investors' welfare.
AUTHORS: Guidolin, Massimo; Timmerman, Allan