Should merger policy be changed? An antitrust perspective
AUTHORS: Adams, William James
Banking antitrust in transition
AUTHORS: Cyrnak, Anthony W.
Assessing bank antitrust standards
AUTHORS: Furlong, Frederick T.
Market definition and the analysis of antitrust in banking
In antitrust analysis of bank mergers, banking markets are viewed as geographically local, with a "cluster" of products as the relevant product line. This view is criticized as outdated, now that many bank products are offered by nonbank institutions and financial institutions' operations are increasingly national in scope. This paper reexamines the question of market definition in banking, using two micro data sets uniquely well-suited to the task. We find that local depositories remain the dominant supplier of key financial services to households and small businesses, with geographic proximity still important in their institution choice.
AUTHORS: Kwast, Myron L.; Starr-McCluer, Martha; Wolken, John D.
Divestiture as an antitrust remedy in bank mergers
The purpose of this study is to determine whether, from a public policy standpoint, divestitures constitute an effective antitrust remedy in bank merger cases. A number of findings emerge from the study: Divested branches have a remarkable survival record; structural changes effected by divestitures tend to persist over time; larger buyers of divested branches tended to be more successful than smaller buyers; divestiture of the target institutions' branches rather than those of applicants proved preferable from an antitrust standpoint; and divested branches selected by the Department of Justice do not perform better than others. The findings suggest that divestitures of bank offices have generally provided an effective public policy remedy
AUTHORS: Burke, Jim
Agencies explain screening of bank acquisitions
AUTHORS: Woosley, Lynn W.
Anatomy of a price-fix
An analysis of a price-fixing scheme among retail food chains in the Cleveland, Ohio area that resulted in criminal charges and a $4.2 million fine against the perpetrators, plus a discussion of consumer damages involved in the case.
AUTHORS: Bryan, Michael F.
Antitrust policy and vertical mergers
Recently, federal regulators responsible for enforcing the antitrust laws have shown a renewed interest in the potential anticompetitive effects of vertical mergers--mergers between two independent firms in successive stages of production. This greater activism in vertical merger cases is in striking contrast to the permissive policies that prevailed throughout the 1980s, which, in turn, were a response to the Justice Department's and the Federal Trade Commission's open hostility to vertical mergers during the 1960s and 1970s.> The cyclical antitrust treatment of vertical mergers over the past three and one-half decades has been strongly influenced by the theoretical research of academic economists and lawyers. This article examines the empirical evidence of anticompetitive foreclosure in vertical mergers challenged by the Justice Department and the Federal Trade Commission during the period from 1963 to 1982. The authors find no evidence of anticompetitive market foreclosure for the sample of vertical merger cases challenged by the antitrust agencies during this period. They suggest that a more permissive policy towards vertical mergers be maintained until the theory can spell out more clearly the circumstances when vertical mergers result in anticompetitive foreclosure.
AUTHORS: Adams, William James; Rosengren, Eric S.
Has antitrust policy in banking become obsolete?
The authors analyze the effect of bank mergers on deposit interest rates, using data on banks responding to the Federal Reserve's Monthly Survey of Selected Deposits over an 11-year period. Their results suggest that banks exercise market power in pricing money market deposits and CD's in their local markets.
AUTHORS: Simons, Katerina; Stavins, Joanna
Antitrust implications of thrifts' expanded commercial loan powers
AUTHORS: Moulton, Janice M.