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Jel Classification:L25 

Discussion Paper
The financing experiences of nonemployer firms: evidence from the 2014 joint small business credit survey

Businesses without employees?or nonemployer firms?make up the majority of small businesses in the United States, but little is known about their financial lives, including their business financing needs and experiences. In this paper, we discuss findings from data on nonemployer firms in the 2014 Joint Small Business Credit Survey, a new annual survey by the Federal Reserve Banks of Atlanta, Cleveland, New York, and Philadelphia. Our results indicate that nonemployers use financing less than employers do. They hold less debt and apply for financing at lower rates, even when controlling for ...
FRB Atlanta Community and Economic Development Discussion Paper , Paper 2015-3

Working Paper
Is Bigger Necessarily Better in Community Banking?

We investigate the relative performance of publicly traded community banks (those with assets less than $10 billion) versus larger banks (those with assets between $10 billion and $50 billion). A body of research has shown that community banks have potential advantages in relationship lending compared with large banks, although newer research suggests that these advantages may be shrinking. In addition, the burdens placed on community banks by the regulatory reforms mandated by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the need to increase investment in technology, ...
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 1615

Journal Article
How Well Does Agency Theory Explain Executive Compensation?

As the share of all income going to the top 1 percent has risen over the past four decades, so has the share of top incomes coming from labor income relative to capital income. The rise in labor income is mainly due to the explosion in executive compensation over the same period?mostly because of the increase in executives being paid with stocks, options, and bonuses. The principal-agent model explains the reason for such compensation instead of a flat salary. Yet hundreds of papers in economics, finance, accounting, and management have reached no consensus on whether executive compensation ...
Review , Volume 100 , Issue 3 , Pages 201-36

Working Paper
Tapping into Financial Synergies : Alleviating Financial Constraints Through Acquisitions

The paper examines whether financially constrained firms are able to use acquisitions to ease their constraints. The results show that acquisitions do ease financing constraints for constrained acquirers. Relative to unconstrained acquires, financially constrained firms are more likely to use undervalued equity to fund acquisitions and to target unconstrained and more liquid firms. Using a propensity score matched sample in a difference-in-difference framework, the results show that constrained acquirers become less constrained post-acquisition and relative to matched non-acquiring firms. ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2018-053

Working Paper
Firm Entry and Employment Dynamics in the Great Recession

The 2007-2009 recession is characterized by: a large drop in employment, an unprecedented decline in firm entry, and a slow recovery. Using confidential firm-level data, I show that financial constraints reduced employment growth in small relative to large firms by 4.8 to 10.5 percentage points. The effect of financial constraints is robust to controlling for aggregate demand and is particularly strong in small young firms. I show in a heterogeneous firms model with endogenous firm entry and financial constraints that a large financial shock results in a long-lasting recession caused by a ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2014-56

Journal Article
Profits and balance sheet developments at U.S. commercial banks in 2006

The U.S. commercial banking industry continued to be quite profitable in 2006, and industry assets grew considerably. The strength in profitability and growth of bank balance sheets last year reflected favorable U.S. financial market conditions and the generally solid economic expansion. Industry return on equity advanced from its 2005 level, and the return on assets edged up to match its highest annual level in recent decades. Profitability was supported by brisk growth in non-interest income and generally strong asset quality; the flattening of the yield curve and competitive pressures, ...
Federal Reserve Bulletin , Volume 93 , Issue Jul

Working Paper
Every Cloud has a Silver Lining: Cleansing Effects of the Portuguese Financial Crisis

Using firm-level data, this paper shows that the Portuguese financial crisis was a period of intensified productivity-enhancing reallocation. Aggregate productivity gains, both in manufacturing and services, came from relatively higher contributions of entering and exiting firms and from reallocation of resources between surviving firms. At the microlevel, the crisis reduced the probability of survival for high- and low-productivity firms, but it hit low-productivity firms disproportionately harder. We also found important heterogeneous effects across economic sectors regarding input ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 1250

Report
Grown-up business cycles

We document two striking facts about U.S. firm dynamics and interpret their significance for employment dynamics. The first is the dramatic decline in firm entry and the second is the gradual shift of employment toward older firms since 1980. We show that despite these trends, the lifecycle dynamics of firms and their business cycle properties have remained virtually unchanged. Consequently, aging is the delayed effect of accumulating startup deficits. Together, the decline in the employment contribution of startups and the shift of employment toward more mature firms contributed to the ...
Staff Reports , Paper 707

Working Paper
Does Scale Matter in Community Bank Performance? Evidence Obtained by Applying Several New Measures of Performance

SUPERSEDES WP16-15 We consider how size matters for banks in three size groups: banks with assets of less than $1 billion (small community banks), banks with assets between $1 billion and $10 billion (large community banks), and banks with assets between $10 billion and $50 billion (midsize banks). Community banks have potential advantages in relationship lending compared with large banks. However, increases in regulatory compliance and technological burdens may have disproportionately increased community banks? costs, raising concerns about small businesses? access to credit. Our evidence ...
Working Papers , Paper 18-11

Working Paper
Market exposure and endogenous firm volatility over the business cycle

First Draft: November 1, 2011 We propose a theory of endogenous firm-level volatility over the business cycle based on endogenous market exposure. Firms that reach a larger number of markets diversify market-specific demand risk at a cost. The model is driven only by total factor productivity shocks and captures the business cycle properties of firm-level volatility. Using a panel of U.S. firms (Compustat), we empirically document the countercyclical nature of firm-level volatility. We then match this panel to Compustat?s Segment data and the U.S. Census?s Longitudinal Business Database (LBD) ...
Working Papers , Paper 14-12

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