Search Results

Showing results 1 to 10 of approximately 121.

(refine search)
Jel Classification:G23 

Working Paper
Endogenous Debt Maturity: Liquidity Risk vs. Default Risk
We study the endogenous determination of corporate debt maturity in a setting with default risk. We assume that firms must access the bond market and they issue debt with a flexible structure (coupon, face value, and maturity). Initially, the firm is in a low growth/illiquid state that requires debt refinancing if it matures. Since lenders do not refinance projects with positive but small net present value, firms may be forced to default in the first phase. We call this liquidity risk. The technology is such that earnings can switch to a higher (but riskier) level. In this second phase firms have access to the equity market but they may default if this is the best option. We call this strategic default risk. In the model optimal maturity balances these two risks. We show that firms with poor prospects and firms in more unstable industries will choose shorter maturities even if it is feasible to issue longer debt. The model also offers predictions on how asset maturity, asset salability, and leverage influence maturity. Even though our model is extremely stylized we find that the predictions are roughly consistent with the evidence. Moreover, it offers some insights into the factors that determine the structure of the debt.
AUTHORS: Manuelli, Rodolfo E.; Sanchez, Juan M.
DATE: 2018-10-01

Journal Article
Is Bitcoin a Waste of Resources?
Do Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies play a useful social role, or do they represent a social waste? Bitcoin is a decentralized recordkeeping system, with updating of the record of transactions in the blockchain.
AUTHORS: Williamson, Stephen D.
DATE: 2018

Journal Article
Stability of funding models: an analytical framework
With the recent financial crisis, many financial intermediaries experienced strains created by declining asset values and a loss of funding sources. In reviewing these stress events, one notices that some arrangements appear to have been more stable?that is, better able to withstand shocks to their asset values and/or funding sources?than others. Because the precise determinants of this stability are not well understood, gaining a better grasp of them is a critical task for market participants and policymakers as they try to design more resilient arrangements and improve financial regulation. This article uses a simple analytical framework to illustrate the determinants of a financial intermediary?s ability to survive stress events. An intermediary in the framework faces two types of risk: the value of its assets may decline and/or its short-term creditors may decide not to roll over their debt. The authors measure stability by looking at the combinations of shocks the intermediary can experience while remaining solvent. They study how stability depends on the intermediary?s balance-sheet characteristics, such as its leverage, the maturity structure of its debt, and the liquidity and riskiness of its asset portfolio. They also show how the framework can be applied to examine current policy issues, including liquidity requirements, discount window policy, and different approaches to reforming money market mutual funds.
AUTHORS: McAndrews, James J.; Keister, Todd; Eisenbach, Thomas M.; Yorulmazer, Tanju
DATE: 2014-02

Journal Article
Shadow banking
The rapid growth of the market-based financial system since the mid-1980s has changed the nature of financial intermediation. Within the system, ?shadow banks? have served a critical role, especially in the run-up to the recent financial crisis. Shadow banks are financial intermediaries that conduct maturity, credit, and liquidity transformation without explicit access to central bank liquidity or public sector credit guarantees. This article documents the institutional features of shadow banks, discusses the banks? economic roles, and analyzes their relation to the traditional banking system. The authors argue that an understanding of the ?plumbing? of the shadow banking system is an important underpinning for any study of financial system interlinkages. They observe that while many current and future reform efforts are focused on remediating the excesses of the recent credit bubble, increased capital and liquidity standards for depository institutions and insurance companies are likely to heighten the returns to shadow banking activity. Thus, shadow banking is expected to be a significant part of the financial system, although very likely in a different form, for the foreseeable future.
AUTHORS: Pozsar, Zoltan; Boesky, Hayley; Adrian, Tobias; Ashcraft, Adam B.
DATE: 2013-12

Journal Article
Matching collateral supply and financing demands in dealer banks
The failure and near-collapse of some of the largest dealer banks on Wall Street in 2008 highlighted the marked vulnerability of the industry. Dealer banks are financial intermediaries that make markets for many securities and derivatives. Like standard banks, dealer banks may derive the funding for a loan from their own equity or from external sources, such as depositors or creditors. Unlike standard banks, however, dealer banks rely heavily upon collateralized borrowing and lending, which give rise to ?internal? sources of financing. This article provides a descriptive and analytical perspective on dealer banks and their sources of financing, both internal and external. The authors conclude that internal sources of financing may prove more efficient than external sources of financing in normal times, but may be subject to significant and abrupt reductions in stressful times. The analysis suggests that accounting rules that allow dealer banks to net certain collateralized transactions may obscure the banks? actual economic exposure to their customers, and that a prudent risk management framework should acknowledge the risks inherent in collateralized finance.
AUTHORS: Sastry, Parinitha; Kirk, Adam; Weed, Phillip; McAndrews, James J.
DATE: 2014-12

Journal Article
The failure resolution of Lehman Brothers
This study examines the resolution of Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. in the U.S. Bankruptcy Court in order to clarify the sources of complexity in its resolution and to inform the debate on appropriate resolution mechanisms for financial institutions. The authors focus on the settlement of Lehman?s creditor and counterparty claims, especially those relating to over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives, where much of the complexity of Lehman?s bankruptcy resolution was rooted. They find that creditors? recovery rate was 28 percent, below historical averages for firms comparable to Lehman. Losses were exacerbated by poor bankruptcy planning and mitigated by timely funding from the Federal Reserve. The settlement of OTC derivatives was a long and complex process, occurring on different tracks for different groups of derivatives creditors. Consequently, the resolution process was less predictable than expected, and it was difficult to obtain an informed view of the process.
AUTHORS: Fleming, Michael J.; Sarkar, Asani
DATE: 2013-12

Journal Article
GSE guarantees, financial stability, and home equity accumulation
Before 2008, the government?s ?implicit guarantee? of the securities issued by the government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac led to practices by these institutions that threatened financial stability. In 2008, the Federal Housing Finance Agency placed these GSEs into conservatorship. Conservatorship was intended to be temporary but has now reached its tenth year, and policymakers continue to weigh options for reform. In this article, the authors assess both implicit and explicit government guarantees for the GSEs. They argue that adopting a legislatively defined ?explicit guarantee,? as advocated by some, may be problematic for a variety of reasons, including the difficulty of pricing such a guarantee and the potential high cost for mortgage holders or the government. In addition to the creation of an explicit guarantee, they recommend that steps be taken to limit systemic risk in housing markets. To that end, they advocate the wider adoption of mortgages?such as the ?Fixed-COFI? mortgage?that build homeowner equity faster than the thirty-year fixed-rate mortgage favored by the GSEs. With such mortgages, homeowners are better able to weather economic downturns.
AUTHORS: Passmore, Wayne; von Hafften, Alexander H.
DATE: 2018

Journal Article
The FHA and the GSEs as countercyclical tools in the mortgage markets
The authors examine the connection between government mortgage programs and economic outcomes during and after the financial crisis. They find a strong correlation between counties that participated more heavily in Federal Housing Administration (FHA)/Veterans Affairs (VA) and government-sponsored enterprise (GSE) mortgage lending before the crisis and better economic outcomes during and after the crisis. Although the financial crisis was a substantial shock to all counties, those more reliant on FHA/VA or GSE lending experienced smaller increases in unemployment rates; smaller declines in new automobile purchases, home prices, home sales, and mortgage purchase originations; and smaller increases in mortgage delinquency rates. Moreover, the authors find that the FHA was a more effective countercyclical tool during and after the 2007-09 financial crisis than the GSEs. This finding may have implications for GSE reform: Greater access to government backing during crises may mitigate tighter underwriting standards and rising securitization costs in mortgage markets.
AUTHORS: Sherlund, Shane M.; Passmore, Wayne
DATE: 2018

Journal Article
Credit risk transfer and de facto GSE reform
The Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac credit risk transfer (CRT) programs, now in their fifth year, shift a portion of credit risk on more than $1.8 trillion of mortgages to private-sector investors. This study summarizes and evaluates the CRT programs, finding that they have been successful in reducing the exposure of the government-sponsored enterprises and the federal government to mortgage credit risk without disrupting the liquidity or stability of mortgage secondary markets. The programs have also created a new financial market for pricing and trading mortgage credit risk, which has grown in size and liquidity over time. In doing so, the CRT programs provide a valuable step forward in the reform of the U.S. housing finance system.
AUTHORS: Finkelstein, David; Strzodka, Andreas; Vickery, James
DATE: 2018

Journal Article
Peas in a pod? Comparing the U.S. and Danish mortgage finance systems
Like the United States, Denmark relies heavily on capital markets for funding residential mortgages, and its covered bond market bears a number of similarities to U.S. agency securitization. This article describes the key features of the Danish mortgage finance system and compares and contrasts them with those of the U.S. system. In addition, it highlights characteristics of the Danish model that may be of interest as the United States considers further mortgage finance reform. In particular, the Danish system includes features that mitigate refinancing frictions during periods of falling home prices, and it offers borrowers the option to repurchase their mortgage at the market price, mitigating ?lock-in? effects. Danish mortgage intermediaries also have high capital ratios relative to their risk exposures, a characteristic that contributes to the stability of the Danish market.
AUTHORS: Berg, Jesper; Vickery, James; Nielsen, Morten Bækmand
DATE: 2018


FILTER BY Content Type


Frame, W. Scott 6 items

Martin, Antoine 6 items

Vickery, James 6 items

McCabe, Patrick E. 5 items

Anadu, Kenechukwu E. 4 items

Copeland, Adam 4 items

show more (228)

FILTER BY Jel Classification

G21 53 items

G28 40 items

G01 21 items

G12 15 items

G11 14 items

show more (74)

FILTER BY Keywords

financial crisis 9 items

mortgage 8 items

systemic risk 8 items

securitization 7 items

Liquidity 7 items

financial stability 7 items

show more (422)