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Jel Classification:G19 

Working Paper
Identity, Identification and Identifiers : The Global Legal Entity Identifier System

Identity is a critical concept in the rational interactions of any set of objects involving subject-object relationships. The objects must be distinguished according to some framework in order for such relationships to have meaning. In the world of economic systems, relationships such as ownership and responsibility require specific parties to be fixed with a high degree of certainty. This need is particularly strong in financial markets, where transactions can take place in nanoseconds. This paper discusses a particular framework for defining economic actors, the Global Legal Entity ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2016-103

Report
Information acquisition and financial intermediation

Informational advantages of specialists relative to households lead to disagreement between the two in an intermediated market. Although households can acquire additional signals to reduce the informational asymmetry, the additional information is costly, making it rational for households to limit the accuracy of the signals they observe. I show that this leads the equity capital constraint to bind more frequently, making the asset prices in the economy more volatile unconditionally. When disagreement between households and specialists is high, however, return volatility decreases. I find ...
Staff Reports , Paper 571

Report
It’s What You Say and What You Buy: A Holistic Evaluation of the Corporate Credit Facilities

We evaluate the impact of the Federal Reserve corporate credit facilities (PMCCF and SMCCF). A third of the positive effect on prices and liquidity occurred on the announcement date. We document immediate pass-through into primary markets, particularly for eligible issuers. Improvements continue as additional information is shared and purchases begin, with the impact of bond purchases larger than the impact of purchases of ETFs. Exploiting cross-sectional evidence, we see the greatest impact on investment grade bonds and in industries less affected by COVID, concluding that the improvement in ...
Staff Reports , Paper 935

Report
Measuring Corporate Bond Market Dislocations

We measure dislocations in the market for corporate bonds in real time with the Corporate Bond Market Distress Index (CMDI), allowing for the aggregation of a broad set of measures of market functioning from primary and secondary bond markets into a single measure. The index quantifies dislocations from a preponderance-of-metrics perspective, ensuring that the measure of market distress is not driven by any one statistic. We document that the index correctly identifies periods of dislocations, is robust to alternative choices of the aggregation procedure, and provides differential predictive ...
Staff Reports , Paper 957

Working Paper
The scarcity value of Treasury collateral: Repo market effects of security-specific supply and demand factors

In the special collateral repo market, forward agreements are security-specific, which may magnify demand and supply effects. We quantify the scarcity value of Treasury collateral by estimating the impact of security-specific demand and supply factors on the repo rates of all outstanding U.S. Treasury securities. We find an economically and statistically significant scarcity premium. This scarcity effect is quite persistent, passes through to Treasury market prices, and explains a significant portion of the flow-effects of LSAP programs, providing additional evidence for the scarcity channel ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2014-60

Working Paper
Funding Liquidity Risk and the Cross-section of MBS Returns

This paper shows that funding liquidity risk is priced in the cross-section of excess returns on agency mortgage-backed securities (MBS). We derive a measure of funding liquidity risk from dollar-roll implied financing rates (IFRs), which reflect security-level costs of financing positions in the MBS market. We show that factors representing higher net MBS supply are generally associated with higher IFRs, or higher funding costs. In addition, we find that exposure to systematic funding liquidity shocks embedded in the IFRs is compensated in the cross-section of expected excess returns| agency ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2016-052

Journal Article
Case studies on disruptions during the crisis

The 2007-09 financial crisis saw many funding mechanisms challenged by a drastic reduction in market liquidity, a sharp increase in the cost of transactions, and, in some cases, a drying-up in financing. This article presents case studies of several key financial markets and intermediaries under significant distress at this time. For each case, the author discusses the size and evolution of the funding mechanism, the sources of the disruptions, and the policy responses aimed at mitigating distress and making markets more liquid. The review serves as a reference on the vulnerabilities of ...
Economic Policy Review , Issue Feb , Pages 17-28

Journal Article
The Long and Short of It: The Post-Crisis Corporate CDS Market

The authors establish key stylized facts about the post-crisis evolution of trading and pricing of credit default swaps. Using supervisory contract-level data, they show that dealers became net buyers of credit protection starting in the second half of 2014, both through reducing the amount of protection they sell in the single-name market and switching to buying protection in the index market. More generally, they argue that considering simultaneous positions in different types of credit derivatives is crucial for understanding institutions’ decisions to participate in these markets and ...
Economic Policy Review , Volume 26 , Issue 3 , Pages 49

Report
Prestigious stock exchanges: a network analysis of international financial centers

In this paper, we use methods from social network analysis to assess the relative importance of financial centers around the world. Using data from virtually the entire universe of global equity activity, we present two sets of complete rankings for up to forty-five separate locations for the 1990-2006 period. The first phase of our analysis evaluates international stock exchanges based on their ability to attract global initial public offerings (IPOs). The second phase compares the capacity of these exchanges to provide an efficient trading platform for cross-listed companies. U.S. exchanges ...
Staff Reports , Paper 384

Report
Counterparty risk in material supply contracts

This paper explores the sources of counterparty risk in material supply relationships. Using long-term supply contracts collected from SEC filings, we test whether three sources of counterparty risk?financial exposure, product quality risk, and redeployability risk?are priced in the equity returns of linked firms. Our results show that equity holders require compensation for exposure to all three sources of risk. Specifically, offering trade credit to counterparties and investing in relationship-specific assets increase the firm?s exposure to counterparty risk. Further, we show that contracts ...
Staff Reports , Paper 694

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