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Jel Classification:G12 

Working Paper
Can risk explain the profitability of technical trading in currency markets?
Academic studies show that technical trading rules would have earned substantial excess returns over long periods in foreign exchange markets. However, the approach to risk adjustment has typically been rather cursory. We examine the ability of a wide range of models: CAPM, quadratic CAPM, downside risk CAPM, C-CAPM, Carhart?s 4-factor model, an extended C-CAPM with durable consumption, Lustig-Verdelhan (LV) factors, volatility, skewness and liquidity to explain these technical trading returns. No model plausibly accounts for a substantial amount of technical profitability in the foreign exchange market.
AUTHORS: Ivanova, Yuliya; Neely, Christopher J.; Weller, Paul A.
DATE: 2014-10-30

Working Paper
Mortgage Debt, Consumption, and Illiquid Housing Markets in the Great Recession
Using a model with housing search, endogenous credit constraints, and mortgage default, this paper accounts for the housing crash from 2006 to 2011 and its implications for aggregate and cross-sectional consumption during the Great Recession. Left tail shocks to labor market uncertainty and tighter down payment requirements emerge as the key drivers. An endogenous decline in housing liquidity amplifies the recession by increasing foreclosures, contracting credit, and depressing consumption. Balance sheets act as a transmission mechanism from housing to consumption that depends on gross portfolio positions and the leverage distribution. Low interest rate policies accelerate the recovery in housing and consumption.
AUTHORS: Garriga, Carlos; Hedlund, Aaron
DATE: 2017-10-01

Working Paper
An Analysis of the Literature on International Unconventional Monetary Policy
This paper critically evaluates the literature on international unconventional monetary policies. We begin by reviewing the theories of how such heterogeneous policies could work. Empirically, event studies provide compelling evidence that international asset purchase announcements have strongly influenced international bond yields, exchange rates, and equity prices in the desired manner and curtailed market perceptions of extreme events. Calibrated modeling and vector autoregressive (VAR) exercises imply that these policies significantly improved macroeconomic outcomes, raising output and prices. Central bankers give a measured, positive assessment to most unconventional monetary policy. Despite qualified successes, we recommend that central banks reserve these policies for financial crises and/or times when the zero bound constrains conventional monetary policy.
AUTHORS: Bhattarai, Saroj; Neely, Christopher J.
DATE: 2016-11-28

Working Paper
FRED-MD: A Monthly Database for Macroeconomic Research
This paper describes a large, monthly frequency, macroeconomic database with the goal of establishing a convenient starting point for empirical analysis that requires "big data." The dataset mimics the coverage of those already used in the literature but has three appealing features. First, it is designed to be updated monthly using the FRED database. Second, it will be publicly accessible, facilitating comparison of related research and replication of empirical work. Third, it will relieve researchers from having to manage data changes and revisions. We show that factors extracted from our dataset share the same predictive content as those based on various vintages of the so-called Stock-Watson dataset. In addition, we suggest that diffusion indexes constructed as the partial sum of the factor estimates can potentially be useful for the study of business cycle chronology.
AUTHORS: McCracken, Michael W.; Ng, Serena
DATE: 2015-06-15

Working Paper
The cost of business cycles with heterogeneous trading technologies
This paper investigates the welfare cost of business cycles in an economy where households have heterogeneous trading technologies. In an economy with aggregate risk, the different portfolio choices induced by heterogeneous trading technologies lead to a larger consumption inequality in equilibrium, while this source of inequality vanishes in an economy without business cycles. Put simply, the heterogeneity in trading technologies amplifies the effect of aggregate output fluctuation on consumption inequality. The welfare cost of business cycles is, therefore, larger in such an economy. In the benchmark economy with a reasonable low risk aversion rate, the business cycle costs 6.49% per period consumption for an average household when I calibrate this model to match the risk premium.
AUTHORS: Chien, YiLi
DATE: 2014-06-10

Working Paper
Why Are Exchange Rates So Smooth? A Household Finance Explanation
Empirical moments of asset prices and exchange rates imply that pricing kernels are almost perfectly correlated across countries. Otherwise, observed real exchange rates would be too smooth for high Sharpe ratios. However, the cross country correlation among macro fundamentals is weak. We reconcile these facts in a two-country stochastic growth model with heterogeneous households and a home bias in consumption. In our model, only a small fraction of households trade domestic and foreign equities. We show that this mechanism can quantitatively account for the smoothness of exchange rates in the presence of volatile pricing kernels and weakly correlated macro fundamentals.
AUTHORS: Chien, YiLi; Lustig, Hanno; Naknoi, Kanda
DATE: 2015-11-27

Working Paper
Crises in the Housing Market: Causes, Consequences, and Policy Lessons
The global financial crisis of the past decade has shaken the research and policy worlds out of their belief that housing markets are mostly benign and immaterial for understanding economic cycles. Instead, a growing consensus recognizes the central role that housing plays in shaping economic activity, particularly during large boom and bust episodes. This article discusses the latest research regarding the causes, consequences, and policy implications of housing crises with a broad focus that includes empirical and structural analysis, insights from the 2000's experience in the United States, and perspectives from around the globe. Even with the significant degree of heterogeneity in legal environments, institutions, and economic fundamentals over time and across countries, several common themes emerge to guide current and future thinking in this area.
AUTHORS: Garriga, Carlos; Hedlund, Aaron
DATE: 2019-04-18

Working Paper
Consumption in the Great Recession: The Financial Distress Channel
During the Great Recession, the collapse of consumption across the U.S. varied greatly but systematically with house-price declines. We find that financial distress among U.S. households amplified the sensitivity of consumption to house-price shocks. We uncover two essential facts: (1) the decline in house prices led to an increase in household financial distress prior to the decline in income during the recession, and (2) at the zip-code level, the prevalence of financial distress prior to the recession was positively correlated with house-price declines at the onset of the recession. Using a rich-estimated-dynamic model to measure the financial distress channel, we find that these two facts amplify the aggregate drop in consumption by 7 percent and 45 percent respectively.
AUTHORS: Athreya, Kartik B.; Mather, Ryan; Mustre-del-Rio, Jose; Sanchez, Juan M.
DATE: 2019-09-17

Journal Article
The Geography of Housing Market Liquidity During the Great Recession
Using detailed micro data at the ZIP code level, this article explores the regional variation in housing market performance to account for the severity of the Great Recession. The granularity of the data, relative to a more traditional analysis at the county level, is useful for evaluating the performance of the housing market because credit and local macroeconomic variables are tied to housing valuations. The deterioration of the ability to transact (buy and sell) housing units, often referred to as housing liquidity, is an important link that connects housing outcomes with real and credit variables. The data indicate that the timing, severity, and duration of the recession varied across regions and was closely connected with the behavior of the housing market. The deterioration in housing liquidity was uniform across all house price tiers (i.e., bottom, middle, and upper end). Furthermore, there was correlation across areas between the magnitude of the declines in housing liquidity and the severity of the deterioration in house prices and macroeconomic conditions.
AUTHORS: Hedlund, Aaron; Famiglietti, Matthew; Garriga, Carlos
DATE: 2020

Working Paper
Systematic Cojumps, Market Component Portfolios and Scheduled Macroeconomic Announcements
This study provides evidence of common bivariate jumps (i.e., systematic cojumps) between the market index and style-sorted portfolios. Systematic cojumps are prevalent in book-to-market portfolios and hence, their risk cannot easily be diversified away by investing in growth or value stocks. Nonetheless, large-cap firms have less exposure to systematic cojumps than small-cap firms. Probit regression reveals that systematic cojump occurrences are significantly associated with worse-than-expected scheduled macroeconomic announcements, especially those pertaining to the Federal Funds target rate. Tobit regression shows that Federal Funds news surprises are also significantly related to the magnitude of systematic cojumps.
AUTHORS: Chan, Kam Fong; Bowman, Robert G.; Neely, Christopher J.
DATE: 2017-04-26

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