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Jel Classification:F31 

Report
The emerging market economies in times of taper-talk and actual tapering

The emerging market economies (EME) experienced financial distress during two recent periods, both linked to the prospect of the Federal Reserve starting to slow its asset purchases. This policy change was expected to reverse the capital flows directed to the EME. Despite this aggregate effect, a closer analysis shows that there were significant differences across the EME during the time when talk of the upcoming taper began and the period when the policy was implemented. The author makes use of the literature on currency crises to analyze the different cross-country responses and to identify ...
Current Policy Perspectives , Paper 14-6

Report
Uncovering covered interest parity: the role of bank regulation and monetary policy

We analyze the factors underlying the recent deviations from covered interest parity. We show that these deviations can be explained by tighter post-crisis bank capital regulations that made the provision of foreign exchange swaps more costly. Moreover, the recent monetary policy and related interest rate divergence between the United States and other major foreign countries has led to a surge in demand for swapping low interest rate currencies into the U.S. dollar. Given the higher bank balance sheet costs resulting from these regulatory changes, the increased demand for U.S. dollars in the ...
Current Policy Perspectives , Paper 17-3

Report
The effects of a stronger dollar on U.S. prices

Since 2014:Q3, the U.S. dollar has experienced the third-fastest appreciation in over 30 years, with its nominal exchange and real exchange rate rising 15 percent against almost all foreign currencies (as measured by the Major Currencies Dollar Index). This sudden and rapid gain has engendered concerns about how a stronger dollar will affect U.S. export and import prices and ultimately, consumer prices and inflation in the United States. This paper assembles a rich database, spanning the period from 1985:Q1 through 2014:Q4, that combines several measures of prices and exchange rates in order ...
Current Policy Perspectives , Paper 15-9

Working Paper
International Financial Spillovers to Emerging Market Economies: How Important Are Economic Fundamentals?

We assess the importance of economic fundamentals in the transmission of international shocks to financial markets in various emerging market economies (EMEs), covering the so-called taper-tantrum episode of 2013 and seven other episodes of severe EME-wide financial stress since the mid-1990s. Cross-country regressions lead us to the following results: (1) EMEs with relatively better economic fundamentals suffered less deterioration in financial markets during the 2013 taper-tantrum episode. (2) Differentiation among EMEs set in relatively early and persisted through this episode. (3) During ...
Supervisory Research and Analysis Working Papers , Paper RPA 17-2

Speech
Trends in foreign exchange markets and the challenges ahead

Remarks at the 2015 FX Week Conference, New York City.
Speech , Paper 176

Report
Time variation in asset price responses to macro announcements

Although the effects of economic news announcements on asset prices are well established, these relationships are unlikely to be stable. This paper documents the time variation in the responses of yield curves and exchange rates using high-frequency data from January 2000 through August 2011. Significant time variation in news effects is present for those announcements that have the largest effects on asset prices. The time variation in effects is explained by economic conditions, including the level of policy rates at the time of the news release, and risk conditions: Government bond yields ...
Staff Reports , Paper 626

Report
Importers, exporters, and exchange rate disconnect

Large exporters are simultaneously large importers. In this paper, we show that this pattern is key to understanding low aggregate exchange rate pass-through as well as the variation in pass-through across exporters. First, we develop a theoretical framework that combines variable markups due to strategic complementarities and endogenous choice to import intermediate inputs. The model predicts that firms with high import shares and high market shares have low exchange rate pass-through. Second, we test and quantify the theoretical mechanisms using Belgian firm-product-level data with ...
Staff Reports , Paper 586

Report
China’s evolving managed float: an exploration of the roles of the fix and broad dollar movements in explaining daily exchange rate changes

We investigate the drivers of daily changes in the exchange value of the Chinese currency (CNY) since early 2016, when a new regime was introduced for setting the fix?the midpoint of the CNY?s daily trading range against the U.S. dollar. Daily changes in the fix, which is announced just prior to the onset of onshore trading, are shown to be highly predictable and very responsive to the change in the CNY/USD rate during the previous day?s onshore trading session and to changes in dollar cross rates. While highly predictable, the fix is shown to have uneven predictive power for the subsequent ...
Staff Reports , Paper 828

Report
News shocks, monetary policy, and foreign currency positions

Over the past two decades, before the global financial crisis, there was a rapid rise in the size of gross external portfolio positions as well as a decrease in the net negative foreign currency exposure in external balance sheets. In this paper, we present a theoretical model in which these portfolio facts can be explained by changes in monetary policy rules and the composition of shocks that underlie economic fluctuations. We find that policies with a strong emphasis on price stability would imply shorter positions in foreign currency when the dominant sources of fluctuations are supply ...
Staff Reports , Paper 750

Report
Rational speculators and exchange rate volatility

This paper examines whether rational, fully informed speculators will smooth exchange rates. Friedman's (1953) claim that they must do so is challenged, based on the exclusion of interest rate differentials from his interpretation of speculator behavior. Once one recognizes that interest rates matter to speculators, it becomes apparent that rational speculators could sometimes violate Friedman's description of their behavior, and buy currency when its value is relatively high or sell currency when its value is low. For this reason the presence of rational, fully informed speculators may ...
Staff Reports , Paper 13

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