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Evaluating International Economic Policy with the Federal Reserve's Global Model
FRB/Global is a large-scale macroeconomic model developed and maintained by the Board's staff. This article provides a historical perspective on the development of the model, gives an overview of its structure, and highlights its dynamic properties with three simulation experiments: a reduction in U.S. government purchases; a depreciation of the U.S. dollar; and an increase in the price of oil exported by OPEC. The article illustrates other uses of FRB/Global by examining the spillover effects of fiscal and monetary policy under alternative European monetary policy regimes.
Tariff passthrough at the border and at the store: evidence from US trade policy
We use micro data collected at the border and at retailers to characterize the effects brought by recent changes in US trade policy ? particularly the tariffs placed on imports from China ? on importers, consumers, and exporters. We start by documenting that the tariffs were almost fully passed through to the total prices paid by importers, suggesting that the tariffs? incidence has fallen largely on the United States. Since we estimate the response of prices to exchange rates to be far more muted, the recent depreciation of the Chinese renminbi is unlikely to alter this conclusion. Next, ...
The Recent Steepening of Phillips Curves
The Phillips curve captures the empirical inverse relationship between the level of inflation and unemployment. The reciprocal of its slope, sometimes referred to as the “sacrifice ratio,” represents the increase in the unemployment rate associated with a 1 percentage point reduction in the inflation rate. In this Chicago Fed Letter, we provide evidence that the Phillips curve has steepened in many industrialized countries since the start of the recovery from the Covid-19 pandemic. This suggests a lower sacrifice ratio now than before 2020.
China's Post-COVID Recovery: Implications and Risks
China removed most of its COVID-19 restrictions in November 2022 following a year of weak growth. Despite initial uncertainty about sustained COVID-19 outbreaks, the Chinese economy has begun to rebound, driven by domestic consumption. The rebound is likely to boost global growth.
Alternative Indicators for Chinese Economic Activity Using Sparse PLS Regression
Official Chinese GDP growth rates have been remarkably smooth over the past decade, in contrast with alternative Chinese economic data. To better identify Chinese business cycles, we construct a sparse partial least squares (PLS) factor from a wide array of Chinese higher-frequency data, targeted toward variables that are highly correlated with important aspects of the Chinese economy. Our resulting alternative growth indicator clearly identifies Chinese business cycle fluctuations and it performs well both in out-of-sample testing for China as well as when applied to other economies. Using ...
How Has the Current Lockdown in China Affected the Global Supply Chain?
The recent lockdown in China is expected to exacerbate disruptions in the global supply chain. Using high-frequency data, I show that supply chain disruptions from the current lockdown are likely to be less severe than those from the lockdown in 2020. However, highly transmissible COVID-19 variants continue to present risks, and supply chain disruptions could intensify if the current lockdown is extended or applied to other regions of China.
The euro and global turbulence: member countries gain stability
The pattern of adjustment of euroarea countries? external competitiveness to dollar and risk aversion shocks has become more similar since the euro?s creation.