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Series:Staff Reports  Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of New York 

Report
Watering a lemon tree: heterogeneous risk taking and monetary policy transmission
We build a general equilibrium model with financial frictions that impede monetary policy transmission. Agents with heterogeneous productivity can increase investment by levering up, which increases liquidity risk due to maturity transformation. In equilibrium, more productive agents choose higher leverage than less productive agents, which exposes the more productive agents to greater liquidity risk and makes their investment less responsive to interest rate changes. When monetary policy reduces interest rates, aggregate investment quality deteriorates, which blunts the monetary stimulus and decreases asset liquidation values. This, in turn, reduces loan demand, decreasing the interest rate further and generating a negative spiral. Overall, the allocation of credit is distorted and monetary stimulus can become ineffective even with significant interest rate drops.
AUTHORS: Choi, Dong Beom; Eisenbach, Thomas M.; Yorulmazer, Tanju
DATE: 2015-04-01

Report
Intraday market making with overnight inventory costs
The U.S. Treasury market is highly intermediated by nonbank principal trading firms (PTFs). Limited capital forces PTFs to end the trading day roughly flat. We construct a continuous time market making model to analyze the trade-off faced by a profit-maximizing firm with overnight inventory costs, and develop closed-form representations of the optimal price policy functions. Our model reveals that bid-ask spreads widen as the end of the trading day approaches, and that increases in order arrival rates do not always lead to higher price volatility. Our empirical analysis shows that Treasury security trading costs increase as the close of trading approaches, consistent with model predictions.
AUTHORS: Adrian, Tobias; Capponi, Agostino; Fleming, Michael J.; Vogt, Erik; Zhang, Hongzhong
DATE: 2016-10-01

Report
Commodity prices, commodity currencies, and global economic developments
In this paper, we seek to produce forecasts of commodity price movements that can systematically improve on naive statistical benchmarks. We revisit how well changes in commodity currencies perform as potential efficient predictors of commodity prices, a view emphasized in the recent literature. In addition, we consider different types of factor-augmented models that use information from a large data set containing a variety of indicators of supply and demand conditions across major developed and developing countries. These factor-augmented models use either standard principal components or the more novel partial least squares (PLS) regression to extract dynamic factors from the data set. Our forecasting analysis considers ten alternative indices and sub-indices of spot prices for three different commodity classes across different periods. We find that, of all the approaches, the exchange-rate-based model and the PLS factor-augmented model are more likely to outperform the naive statistical benchmarks, although PLS factor-augmented models usually have a slight edge over the exchange-rate-based approach. However, across our range of commodity price indices we are not able to generate out-of-sample forecasts that, on average, are systematically more accurate than predictions based on a random walk or autoregressive specifications.
AUTHORS: Pesenti, Paolo; Groen, Jan J. J.
DATE: 2009

Report
Capital constraints, counterparty risk, and deviations from covered interest rate parity
We provide robust evidence of a deviation in the covered interest rate parity (CIP) relation since the onset of the financial crisis in August 2007. The CIP deviation exists with respect to several different dollar-denominated interest rates and exchange rate pairings of the dollar vis-a-vis other currencies. The results show that our proxies for margin conditions and for the cost of capital are significant determinants of the CIP deviations, especially during the crisis period. The supply of dollars by the Federal Reserve to foreign central banks via reciprocal currency arrangements (swap lines) reduced CIP deviations at this time. Following the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, uncertainty about counterparty risk became a significant determinant of CIP deviations, and the swap lines program no longer affected the CIP deviations significantly. These results indicate a breakdown of arbitrage transactions in the international capital markets that owes partly to lack of capital and partly to heightened counterparty credit risk. Central bank interventions helped reduce the funding liquidity risk of global institutions.
AUTHORS: Coffey, Niall; Hrung, Warren B.; Sarkar, Asani
DATE: 2009

Report
Compositional dynamics and the performance of the U.S. banking industry
As the U.S. banking industry continuously evolves, changes in industry composition have a direct impact on the aggregate performance of the industry. This paper presents a new decomposition framework for commercial banks and shows that both firm-level changes and dynamic reallocation effects--due to increased market share of successful banks, exit of poor performers, and new entrants--made substantial contributions to changes in profitability and capitalization of the U.S. banking industry from 1976 to 1998. In periods of declining profits, these reallocations were particularly important, increasing industry return on equity by several percentage points in the late 1980s and stabilizing industry performance. In the late 1990s, however, the reallocation effects turned negative and lowered industry profits as growing banks showed declining profits on net. These results provide a new perspective for understanding the impact of changes in competition on the performance of the U.S. banking industry.
AUTHORS: Stiroh, Kevin J.
DATE: 2000

Report
Have amenities become relatively more important than firm productivity advantages in metropolitan areas?
We analyze patterns of compensating differentials to determine whether a region's bundle of site characteristics has a greater net effect on household location decisions relative to firm location decisions in U.S. metropolitan areas over time. We estimate skill-adjusted wages and attribute-adjusted rents using hedonic regressions for 238 metropolitan areas in 1990 and 2000. Within the framework of the standard Roback model, we classify each metropolitan area based on whether amenities or firm productivity advantages dominate and analyze the extent to which these classifications change between 1990 and 2000. We then decompose compensating differentials into amenity and firm productivity advantage components and examine how these components change. Empirical results suggest that while the relative importance of amenities appears to have increased slightly between 1990 and 2000, firm productivity advantages continued to dominate amenities in the vast majority of metropolitan areas during this decade.
AUTHORS: Abel, Jaison R.; Deitz, Richard
DATE: 2008

Report
Financial intermediation, asset prices, and macroeconomic dynamics
Fluctuations in the aggregate balance sheets of financial intermediaries provide a window on the joint determination of asset prices and macroeconomic aggregates. We document that financial intermediary balance sheets contain strong predictive power for future excess returns on a broad set of equity, corporate, and Treasury bond portfolios. We also show that the same intermediary variables that predict excess returns forecast real economic activity and various measures of inflation. Our findings point to the importance of financing frictions in macroeconomic dynamics and provide quantitative guidance for preemptive macroprudential and monetary policies.
AUTHORS: Adrian, Tobias; Shin, Hyun Song; Moench, Emanuel
DATE: 2010

Report
The role of consumption substitutability in the international transmission of shocks
This paper develops a general framework to analyze the welfare consequences of monetary and fiscal shocks in an open economy, focusing on the role of the degree of substitutability between goods produced in different countries. We find that an expansionary shock that would be beneficial in a closed economy can have an adverse "beggar-thyself" effect in the country where it takes place, or an adverse "beggar-thy-neighbor" effect on its neighbor. Such effects depend significantly on the degree of substitutability between goods produced in different countries, as well as the exact nature of the shocks. In addition, a closed economy can be an imperfect approximation of a large open economy when there is little substitutability between goods produced in different countries.
AUTHORS: Tille, Cedric
DATE: 1999-03-04

Report
Social Security, benefit claiming, and labor force participation: a quantitative general equilibrium approach
We build a general equilibrium model of overlapping generations that incorporates endogenous saving, labor force participation, work hours, and Social Security benefit claims. Using this model, we study the impact of three Social Security reforms: 1) a reduction in benefits and payroll taxes; 2) an increase in the earliest retirement age, to sixty-four from sixty-two; and 3) an increase in the normal retirement age, to sixty-eight from sixty-six. We find that a 50 percent cut in the scope of the current system significantly raises asset holdings and the labor input, primarily through higher participation of older workers, and reduces the shortfall of the Social Security budget through a reduction in early claiming. Increasing the normal retirement age also raises saving and the labor supply, but the effects are smaller. Postponing the earliest retirement age has only a negligible effect. When the projected aging of the population is taken into account, the case for a reform that encourages labor force participation of the elderly appears to be much stronger.
AUTHORS: Kitao, Sagiri; Imrohoroglu, Selahattin
DATE: 2010

Report
Liquidity in U.S. fixed income markets: a comparison of the bid-ask spread in corporate, government and municipal bond markets
We examine the determinants of the realized bid-ask spread in the U.S. corporate, municipal and government bond markets for the years 1995 to 1997, based on newly available transactions data. Overall, we find that liquidity is an important determinant of the realized bid-ask spread in all three markets. Specifically, in all markets, the realized bid-ask spread decreases in the trading volume. Additionally, risk factors are important in the corporate and municipal markets. In these markets, the bid-ask spread increases in the remaining-time-to maturity of a bond. The corporate bond spread also increases in credit risk and the age of a bond. The municipal bond spread increases in the after-tax bond yield. Controlling for others factors, the municipal bond spread is higher than the government bond spread by about 9 cents per $100 par value, but the corporate bond spread is not. Consistent with improved pricing transparency, the bid-ask spread in the corporate and municipal bond markets is lower in 1997 by about 7 to 11 cents per $100 par value, relative to the earlier years. Finally, the ten largest corporate bond dealers earn 15 cents per $100 par value higher than the remaining dealers, after controlling for differences in the characteristics of bonds traded by each group. We find no such differences for the government and municipal bond dealers.
AUTHORS: Chakravarty, Sugato; Sarkar, Asani
DATE: 1999

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