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Series:International Finance Discussion Papers  Bank:Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) 

Working Paper
Where are global and U.S. trade heading in the aftermath of the trade collapse: issues and alternative scenarios
Global and U.S. trade declined dramatically in the wake of the global financial crisis in late 2008 and early 2009. The subsequent recovery in trade, while vigorous at first, gradually lost momentum in 2010. Against this backdrop, this paper explores the prospects for global and U.S. trade in the medium term. We develop a unified empirical framework ? an error correction model ? that exploits the cointegrating relationship between trade and economic activity. The model allows us to juxtapose several scenarios with different assumptions about the strength of GDP growth going forward and the relationship between trade and economic activity. Our analysis suggests that during the crisis both world trade and U.S. exports declined significantly more than would have been expected on the basis of historical relationships with economic activity. Moreover, this gap between actual and equilibrium trade is closing only slowly and could persist for some time to come.
AUTHORS: Gruber, Joseph W.; Filippo di Mauro; Bernd Schnatz; Nico Zorell
DATE: 2011

Working Paper
Term structure forecasting using macro factors and forecast combination
We examine the importance of incorporating macroeconomic information and, in particular, accounting for model uncertainty when forecasting the term structure of U.S. interest rates. We start off by analyzing and comparing the forecast performance of several individual term structure models. Our results confirm and extend results found in previous literature that adding macroeconomic information, through factors extracted from a large number of individual series, tends to improve interest rate forecasts. We then show, however, that the predictive power of individual models varies over time significantly. Models with macro factors are the more accurate in and around recession periods. Models without macro factors do particularly well in low-volatility subperiods such as the late 1990s. We demonstrate that this problem of model uncertainty can be mitigated by combining individual model forecasts. Combining forecasts leads to encouraging gains in predictability, especially for longer-dated maturities, and importantly, these gains are consistent over time.
AUTHORS: Michiel De Pooter; Ravazzolo, Francesco; Dick Van Dijk
DATE: 2010

Working Paper
The Self-Employment Option in Rigid Labor Markets: An Empirical Investigation
This paper studies selection into and returns to self-employment in labor markets with stringent employment protection. Using Spanish administrative panel data, we characterize self-employment dynamics in the presence of rigidities that affect workers? outside options. We document the negative selection into self-employment when workers enter from unemployment, and the pro-cyclicality of the decision. We identify career heterogeneity in the data and estimate a rich life-cycle income process. The self-employed face shocks with smaller variances but lower returns compared to fixed-term workers?the prevalent contract out of unemployment. These facts call for a revision of active labor market policies in place.
AUTHORS: Garcia-Cabo, Joaquin; Madera, Rocio
DATE: 2019-11-14

Working Paper
The Effect of U.S. Stress Tests on Monetary Policy Spillovers to Emerging Markets
This paper shows that monetary policy and prudential policies interact. U.S. banks issue more commercial and industrial loans to emerging market borrowers when U.S. monetary policy eases. The effect is less pronounced for banks that are more constrained through the U.S. bank stress tests, reflected in a lower minimum capital ratio in the severely adverse scenario. This suggests that monetary policy spillovers depend on banks? capital constraints. In particular, during a period of quantitative easing when liquidity is abundant, banks are more flexible, and the scope for adjusting lending is larger when they have a bigger capital buffer. We conjecture that bank lending to emerging markets during the zero-lower bound period would have been even higher had the United States not introduced stress tests for their banks.
AUTHORS: Liu, Emily; Niepmann, Friederike; Schmidt-Eisenlohr, Tim
DATE: 2019-11-22

Working Paper
News or noise? an analysis of Brazilian GDP announcements
Revisions to GDP announcements in many countries are often large, and Faust, Rogers, and Wright (2003) have found that G-7 GDP revisions are predictable to varying degrees. In this paper, we extend FRW to study revisions to Brazilian GDP announcements. We document that revisions to Brazilian GDP are large relative to those of G-7 countries. Brazilian GDP revisions are also predictable, which is consistent with the view that GDP revisions correct errors in preliminary GDP rather than reflect news. However, GDP revisions are far from being entirely predictable. Although GDP revisions are largest only one year following the initial GDP release, those revisions are nearly unpredictable.
AUTHORS: Rebeca de la Rocque Palis; Ramos, Roberto Luis Olinto; Robitaille, Patrice
DATE: 2004

Working Paper
Sand in the wheels of the labor market: the effect of firing costs on employment
This paper examines the effects of firing costs in a dynamic general equilibrium model where firms face stochastic demand. It derives analytically two simple closed-form equations, one for the supply of labor, the other for its demand. These equations determine the comparative static effects of changes in firing costs on the labor market. When negative shocks are more likely to occur than positive shocks, and when the frequency of these shocks is high, firing costs have a substantial negative impact on aggregate employment. In addition, product market integration, as it has occurred in the formation of the European Union, induces firms to be more wary of future possible downturns and therefore intensifies the negative consequences of firing costs.
AUTHORS: Andrea De Michelis
DATE: 2004

Working Paper
Modelling inflation in Australia
This paper develops an empirically constant, data-coherent, error correction model for inflation in Australia. The level of consumer prices is a mark-up over domestic and import costs, with adjustments for dynamics and relative aggregate demand. We address issues of cointegration, general to specific modelling, dynamic specification, model evaluation and testing' parameter constancy, and exogeneity. We also test this model against existing models of Australian prices: this model encompasses (but is not encompassed by) the existing models.
AUTHORS: Gordon De Brouwer; Ericsson, Neil R.
DATE: 1995

Working Paper
The United States international asset and liability position: a comparison of flow of funds and Commerce department presentations
This paper presents a detailed description of how the Flow of Funds' foreign sector asset and liability account is derived. The statistics found in the Flow of Funds' (FOF) foreign sector are related to the Commerce Department's U.S. International Investment Position (IIP) tabulation; a survey of information sources for the foreign sector shows how these data are largely reconcilable with the Commerce Department's IIP. A second section of the paper, based on these statistics, offers some observations about recent developments in the United States' net international investment position.
AUTHORS: Guido E. Van der Ven; Wilson, John F.
DATE: 1986

Working Paper
Firm default and aggregate fluctuations
This paper studies the relationship between macroeconomic fluctuations and corporate defaults while conditioning on industry affiliation and an extensive set of firm-specific factors. By using a panel data set for virtually all incorporated Swedish businesses over 1990-2009, a period which includes a full-scale banking crisis, we find strong evidence for a substantial and stable impact from aggregate fluctuations on business defaults. A standard logit model with financial ratios augmented with macroeconomic factors can account surprisingly well for the outburst in business defaults during the banking crisis, as well as the subsequent fluctuations in default frequencies. Moreover, the effects of macroeconomic variables differ across industries in an economically intuitive way. Out-of-sample evaluations show that our approach is superior to models that exclude macro information and standard well-fitting time-series models. Our analysis shows that firm-specific factors are useful in ranking firms' relative riskiness, but that macroeconomic factors are necessary to understand fluctuations in the absolute risk level.
AUTHORS: Linde, Jesper; Roszbach, Kasper; Jacobson, Tor
DATE: 2011

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