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Series:International Finance Discussion Papers 

Working Paper
Can long-run restrictions identify technology shocks?

Gali's innovative approach of imposing long-run restrictions on a vector autoregression (VAR) to identify the effects of a technology shock has become widely utilized. In this paper, we investigate its reliability through Monte Carlo simulations of several relatively standard business cycle models. We find it encouraging that the impulse responses derived from applying the Gali methodology to the artificial data generally have the same sign and qualitative pattern as the true responses. However, we highlight the importance of small-sample bias in the estimated impulse responses and show that ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 792

Working Paper
Estimating consumer import demand equations

International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 105

Working Paper
U.S. banks, exchange markets, and the dollar, Sept.-Nov. 1978

International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 151

Working Paper
Explaining the energy consumption portfolio in a cross-section of countries: are the BRICs different?

This paper uses disaggregated data from a broad cross-section of countries to empirically assess differences in energy consumption profiles across countries. We find empirical support for the energy ladder hypothesis, which contends that as an economy develops it transits away from a heavier reliance on traditional fuel sources towards an increase in the use of modern commercial energy sources. We also find empirical support for the hypothesis that structural transformation--the idea that as an economy matures, it transforms away from agriculture-based activity into industrial activity and, ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 1015

Working Paper
Equilibrium liquidity premia

This paper studies in a general framework the relative prices of perpetuities with identical dividends and different bid-ask spreads. It establishes four sets of conditions under which the liquidity premium is always positive (i.e., an asset with smaller spread always commands a higher price). To show that the liquidity premium is not necessarily positive, the paper presents two examples of general equilibrium in which the liquidity premium is sometimes negative. The paper also establishes four sets of conditions under which the price-spread relation is convex and uses results on asset price ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 615

Working Paper
Evaluating Asset-Market Effects of Unconventional Monetary Policy: A Cross-Country Comparison

This paper examines the effects of unconventional monetary policy by the Federal Reserve, Bank of England, European Central Bank and Bank of Japan on bond yields, stock prices and exchange rates. We use common methodologies for the four central banks, with daily and intradaily asset price data. We emphasize the use of intradaily data to identify the causal effect of monetary policy surprises. We find that these policies are effective in easing financial conditions when policy rates are stuck at the zero lower bound, apparently largely by reducing term premia.
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 1101

Working Paper
Trade integration, competition, and the decline in exchange-rate pass-through

Over the past twenty years, U.S. import prices have become less responsive to the exchange rate. We propose that a significant portion of this decline is a result of increased trade integration. To illustrate this effect, we develop an open economy DGE model in which trade occurs along both the intensive and extensive margins. The key element we introduce into this environment is strategic complementarity in price setting. As a result, a firm's pricing decision depends on the prices set by its competitors. This feature implies that a foreign exporter finds it optimal to vary its markup in ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 864

Working Paper
The identification of destabilizing foreign exchange speculation

International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 100

Working Paper
The Effect of Monetary Policy on Housing Tenure Choice as an Explanation for the Price Puzzle

In this paper we provide an alternative explanation for the price puzzle (Sims 1992) based on the effect of monetary policy on housing tenure choice and the weight of the shelter component in overall CPI. In the presence of nominal or financial frictions, when interest rates increase, the real cost of owning a house increases, and this increase may make some people prefer to rent instead of buying. This change in consumption behavior increases the price of rents relative to other goods. Starting in 1983, homeownership costs are based on a measure of implied owner equivalent rent, which is ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 1171

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