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Series:International Finance Discussion Papers 

Working Paper
Monetary Policy Expectations, Fund Managers, and Fund Returns: Evidence from China

Although many central banks in the 21st century have become more transparent, Chinese monetary policy communications have been relatively opaque, making it more difficult for financial market participants to make decisions that depend on the future path of interest rates. We conduct a novel systematic textual analysis of the discussion in the quarterly reports of China fund managers, from which we infer their near-term expectations for monetary policy. We construct an aggregate index of manager expectations and show that, as a forecast of Chinese monetary policy, it compares favorably with ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 1285

Working Paper
Fiscal Federalism and European Integration: Implications for Fiscal and Monetary Policies

This paper examines European economic integration in light of standard thinking about fiscal federalism. We first describe the main features of European integration, analyzing how institutions in the European Union fit the prescriptions of a federal system. We find that in some areas the European Union has already developed arrangements that fit standard views of fiscal federalism, in other areas there is gradual movement toward prescribed arrangements, and in still other areas the European Union s unique historical path may suggest some interesting new departures in the federalism ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 0694

Working Paper
The stability of income and price elasticities in U.S. trade, 1957-1977

International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 119

Working Paper
Capital controls, political risk and interest disparities

International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 125

Working Paper
Forecasting the price of oil

We address some of the key questions that arise in forecasting the price of crude oil. What do applied forecasters need to know about the choice of sample period and about the tradeoffs between alternative oil price series and model specifications? Are real or nominal oil prices predictable based on macroeconomic aggregates? Does this predictability translate into gains in out-of-sample forecast accuracy compared with conventional no-change forecasts? How useful are oil futures markets in forecasting the price of oil? How useful are survey forecasts? How does one evaluate the sensitivity of a ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 1022

Working Paper
Trade prices and volumes in East Asia through the crisis

This paper presents a break-down of the export and import performance of select East Asian countries into price and volume effects. The results show that in aggregate, the decline in export revenue experienced by these countries in 1998 was largely due to a 9.1 percent fall in prices, and that export volume actually rose. Similarly, while the import volume of these countries did fall in 1998, the decline was not as great as in the dollar value of those imports, but reflected a greater slide in import prices of 10.8 percent. The fall in import and export prices in the East Asian region began ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 643

Working Paper
Monetary regime switches and unstable objectives

Monetary policy objectives and targets are not necessarily stable over time. The regime switching literature has typically analyzed and interpreted changes in policymakers' behavior through simple interest rate rules. This paper analyzes policy regime switches explicitly modeling policymakers' behavior and objectives. We show how current monetary policy is affected and should optimally respond to alternative regimes. We also show that changes in the parameters of simple rules do not necessarily correspond to changes in policymakers' preferences. In fact, capturing and interpreting regime ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 1036

Working Paper
\\"Here, dollars, dollars ...\\"estimating currency demand and worldwide currency substitution

In measuring the percentage of foreign-held U.S., German, and Swiss currencies for the period of the 1960s through the 1990s, I obtain estimates much different from those of others. Using currency demand equations implied by cointegrating vectors for Canada, the Netherlands, and Austria, I estimate that in 1996 only 30% of U.S. currency was held outside the United States, and as much as 69% of German currency was held outside Germany. The U.S. estimate falls slowly over the 1960s, reaching a low of 5% in the first half of the 1970s, then rises through the early 1980s and again during the ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 657

Working Paper
The Japanese sector of the multi-country model

International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 131

Working Paper
The real exchange rate and fiscal policy during the gold standard period: evidence from the United States and Great Britain

We study the determinants of the dollar/pound real exchange rate from 1879 to 1914 focusing on the role of fiscal policy. We present a simple dynamic model of the real exchange rate to frame our analysis. The econometric results are based upon the decomposition of the sources of the innovation of the real exchange rate drawn from a structural vector autoregression model. We find little evidence that changes in tariffs and government spending affected the real exchange rate. There is some stronger empirical evidence that shocks to deficits were associated with the fluctuations in the real ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 482

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