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Series:Economic Review  Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco 

Journal Article
Information and communications technology as a general purpose technology: evidence from U.S. industry data

Many people point to information and communications technology (ICT) as the key for understanding the acceleration in productivity in the United States since the mid-1990s. Stories of ICT as a general purpose technology (GPT) suggest that measured total factor productivity (TFP) should rise in ICT-using sectors (reflecting either unobserved accumulation of intangible organizational capital, spillovers, or both), but with a long lag. Contemporaneously, however, investments in ICT may be associated with lower TFP as resources are diverted to reorganization and learning. We find that U.S. ...
Economic Review

Journal Article
The role of relative performance in bank closure decisions

This paper studies a banking industry subject to common and idiosyncratic shocks. We compare two types of regulatory closure rules: (1) an absolute closure rule, which closes banks when their assetliability ratios fall below a given threshold, and (2) a relative closure rule, which closes banks when their assetliability ratios fall sufficiently below the industry average. There are two main results: First, relative closure rules imply forbearance during bad times, defined as adverse realizations of the common shock. This forbearance occurs for incentive reasons, not because of ...
Economic Review

Journal Article
The quantity and character of out-of-market small business lending

Most small business lending from banks originates with institutions that have a local branch, but out-of-market lending does not. Supporting the view that proximity is conducive to lending, I find that only about 10 percent of small business lending is from banks with no branch in the local market. About half of this appears to be from banks with a branch in the same state, further supporting the role of proximity, while, at the same time, supporting the current regulatory practice of considering out-of-market loans when assessing local competitive conditions. I also find that out-of-market ...
Economic Review

Journal Article
Regional growth and resilience: evidence from urban IT centers

After being emblematic of the U.S. economic surge in the late 1990s, urban areas that specialize in information technology (IT) products struggled in the aftermath of the IT spending bust, with most experiencing deeper and longer periods of economic decline than the nation as a whole. Seven years later, most have recovered, but only a few have regained the prominence of earlier years. In this paper, we consider the rise, the fall, and the recovery of urban IT centers and distinguish between the factors leading to temporary gains and those contributing to a more lasting growth path. ...
Economic Review

Journal Article
Do supervisory rating standards change over time?

Supervisory BOPEC ratings were assigned to bank holding companies (BHCs) during the years 1987 to 2004 as a summary of their overall performance and level of supervisory concern. In this article, we examine the stability of the BOPEC ratings assigned over that period. We model supervisory ratings using balance sheet variables, and our analysis suggests that BOPEC rating standards varied over time. Supervisors seem to have applied more stringent rating standards from 1989 to 1992, a period marked by a recession and a large degree of distress in the banking sector. Rating standards then eased ...
Economic Review

Journal Article
Money and the Monetary Control Act

Economic Review , Issue Win , Pages 4-5

Journal Article
Monetary-control implications of the Monetary Control Act

Economic Review , Issue Win , Pages 6-21

Journal Article
The pricing of Federal Reserve services under MCA

Economic Review , Issue Win , Pages 22-40

Journal Article
Windfall profits, interest rates and index numbers

Economic Review , Issue Spr , Pages 4-5

Journal Article
Crude oil price controls and the windfall profit tax: deterrents to production?

Economic Review , Issue Spr , Pages 6-28

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