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Series:Economic Commentary 

Journal Article
Sources of regional growth disparity: the case of Ohio's industries

An examination of industrial structure and competitive position as factors contributing to disparity in Ohio's regional economic growth, and a discussion of changing economic conditions and business cycle dynamics as they have affected Ohio's industries.
Economic Commentary , Issue Dec

Journal Article
Private money in our past, present, and future

The government isn?t the only entity allowed to issue money. Private citizens and businesses can too, and throughout U.S. history, they often have. But private money?as such money is called?isn?t issued much these days. What lessons have our experiences with private money taught us, and what do they imply for our money today and in the future?
Economic Commentary , Issue Jan

Journal Article
The check is dead! Long live the check! A Check 21 update

Check 21 legislation has enabled the check clearing system to transform from paper to electronics, and much more rapidly than some had predicted. As a result of competition with other payment methods, check use has been declining since the mid-1990s, but because of the rapid adoption of electronic payment methods, checks are evolving and are unlikely to disappear anytime soon. Checks are still a convenient way to initiate some payments, and electronic processing has only made them more competitive with all types of electronic payments.
Economic Commentary , Issue Jun

Journal Article
The dollar in the eighties

An analysis of exchange-rate patterns and a discussion of factors thought to influence the strength of the dollar in the foreign exchange market.
Economic Commentary , Issue Sep

Journal Article
Are we saving enough?

Americans are saving less than they used to. At the same time, they are spending more years in retirement, and Social Security still has long-term financial shortfalls. The author finds that most American households must raise their saving rates considerably if they are to maintain their current living standards through retirement.
Economic Commentary , Issue Jul

Journal Article
Do Longer Expansions Lead to More Severe Recessions?

We are now in one of the longest expansions on record. The recession that preceded that expansion was one of the worst in history. Are those two facts related? Some economists suggest they are, while others suggest it?s the other way around: Longer expansions lead to more severe recessions. We assess the evidence for these two hypotheses. We find clear evidence for the former and little for the latter. Deeper recessions are often followed by stronger recoveries, while longer and stronger expansions are not followed by deeper recessions.
Economic Commentary , Issue January

Journal Article
The employability of returning citizens is key to neighborhood revitalization

One problem low-income communities may face in trying to revitalize is dealing with a high share of residents who are returning home after serving prison terms. Returning citizens often concentrate in low-income areas, and they typically lack the education and skills needed to fi nd jobs. This Commentary reviews these and other barriers to employment, estimates the degree of unemployment, and describes some solutions emerging for this population.
Economic Commentary , Issue Nov

Journal Article
Measuring the unseen: a primer on capacity utilization

An examination of the usefulness of two measures of capacity utilization in predicting price pressures and future investment: one measure attempts to represent the maximum physical output a plant can produce, and one is based on changes in production costs as output increases; article concludes with July 1 issue.
Economic Commentary , Issue Jun

Journal Article
Global risks to U.S. monetary policy

We recently invited four international economists to the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland to discuss global developments and to help us identify and understand the key international risks that these developments present for U.S. monetary policy. This Commentary develops a key macroeconomic concern that emerged from our conversations.
Economic Commentary , Issue May

Journal Article
Population Distribution and Educational Attainment within MSAs, 1980-2010

Though most people in the US live in metropolitan areas, they've been choosing to live farther and farther from the center of those areas since the 1950s. While that trend continues to this day, there are some dramatic changes. The exodus from the center of town is slowing down quite a bit, for one. For another, those residents who now live in the central city are better educated than they used to be.
Economic Commentary , Issue Nov




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