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Series:Community Development Research Brief  Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco 

Journal Article
Student debt and default in the 12th District

Postsecondary educational expenses and student loan balances have been trending steadily upward, but persistent unemployment and weak economic conditions have created an alarming new trend of rising student loan defaults. This Brief examines broad trends in student borrowing in the Federal Reserve's 12th District, with an emphasis on students from low- and moderate-income households. The rise of student borrowing has important community development implications as it directly impacts the present and future financial well-being of LMI individuals.
Community Development Research Brief , Issue Dec , Pages 01-15

Journal Article
School quality and affordable housing in the Bay Area

Everyone knows the old real estate adage that the three most important factors in determining the value of a given property are location, location, and location. This is to say that place matters; a neighborhood confers a bundle of amenities to its residents that are specific to that geography. This bundle can include proximity to parks, small-scale retail offerings, high quality schools, and a variety of transportation options, as well as low crime rates and clean air. These amenities are arranged in a variety of configurations across space, and most households determine which aspects are ...
Community Development Research Brief , Issue June , Pages 1-10

Journal Article
Suburbanization of poverty in the Bay Area

Despite its persistent association with the "inner city," poverty has shifted toward the suburbs in the San Francisco Bay Area over the past decade. Using data from the 2000 census and the 2005-2009 ACS 5-year estimates, this research brief examines the changing geography of poverty in the Bay Area and its implications for the community development field.
Community Development Research Brief , Issue January , Pages 1-17

Journal Article
On the Sidelines of the Hot Economy

While the current economy is often characterized as ?hot,? marked by low unemployment, stable prices, and sustained economic growth, many residents are not enjoying the prosperity reflected in the aggregate measures of economic well-being. This report focuses on those who have not reaped the benefits of recent sustained growth in the economy. The report highlights groups who have faced barriers to economic participation and documents interrelated rising costs?particularly for housing, transportation, and childcare?that contribute to keeping people on the sidelines of the economy.
Community Development Research Brief , Issue 04 , Pages 01-18

Journal Article
At What Cost? Student Loan Debt in the Bay Area

For most Americans, an investment in higher education is a key driver of economic security and mobility. However, rapidly rising costs of attendance, combined with stagnant wages and inadequate support systems for vulnerable borrowers have resulted in outcomes that are at odds with our collective vision of higher education as a crucial foundation for achieving the American Dream. This report highlights the local contours of this issue in the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region, particularly for low-income communities and communities of color, using Federal Reserve Bank of New York ...
Community Development Research Brief , Issue 03 , Pages 01-52

Journal Article
Funds for Kickstarting Affordable Housing Preservation and Production: Lessons for New Investors

A shortage of affordable homes for workers and families at all income levels across the country calls for innovative solutions. Over the past decade, a variety of public-private loan funds have developed to kick-start construction and preservation of affordable housing. This report breaks down how these funds fit into the process of developing and preserving affordable housing and shares lessons for those who are considering starting or investing in a fund.
Community Development Research Brief , Issue 02 , Pages 01-19

Journal Article
The rise of single family rentals in Arizona, California, and Nevada

The worst of the housing crisis may be behind us, but the recent housing market recovery opens up a number of new community development questions. Of particular concern is the potential impact of investor purchases of single-family residences, especially in hard-hit neighborhoods that experienced severe price depreciation and offered an abundant supply of distressed property. This Research Brief examines trends in rental housing composition in Arizona, California and Nevada and takes a closer look at local areas that have seen the fastest growth in single-family rentals. These three states ...
Community Development Research Brief , Issue September , Pages 1-24

Journal Article
Testing Our Hypotheses on Equitable Development: Midcourse Learning and Adapting Through SPARCC

The Strong, Prosperous, And Resilient Communities Challenge (SPARCC) supports collaborative leadership to advance changes in policy, practice, and investment that promote equitable regional development. SPARCC does this by investing in six regions across the country: Atlanta, Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, Memphis, and the San Francisco Bay Area. Within each site, leaders from across sectors come together at the same metaphorical table to align their vision and implement strategies for effecting regional change. SPARCC provides each site with combined grant and technical assistance funds over ...
Community Development Research Brief , Issue 01 , Pages 01-19

Journal Article
Household net worth and asset ownership among the economically vulnerable

Households whose balance sheets were dominated by housing, particularly those in depressed markets and those exposed to high-cost predatory mortgages, were deeply exposed to the downside risk that became reality during the Great Recession. These households tended to be lower-income, minority, and have lower educational attainment, meaning they were already struggling with low net worth prior to the recession. This Research Brief examines household net worth and asset ownership in 2005 and 2011 across different demographic groups, using data from the U.S. Census Bureau?s Survey of Income and ...
Community Development Research Brief , Issue April , Pages 1-10

Journal Article
Housing market recovery in the 12th district: implications for low- and moderate-income communities

Following the aftermath of the Great Recession, national indicators are starting to show signs of improvement in the housing market. However, such indicators mask the realities of what?s happening on the ground in low- and moderate-income (LMI) communities that were disproportionately affected by the housing crisis. Complicating matters is the unprecedented role of investors in the housing recovery and the changing nature of local housing markets. There are pressing concerns around the potential impact of investor ownership on communities, tightening rental markets, and the ongoing challenges ...
Community Development Research Brief , Issue August , Pages 1-15

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