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Series:Community Development Research Brief  Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco 

Journal Article
What are Banks Doing to Address the Impacts of COVID-19 on LMI Communities? Early Approaches to Addressing the Crisis

Lessons from history show that those who are most disadvantaged before a disaster are likely to be most vulnerable during a disaster as well as on the road to recovery. As the novel coronavirus continues to spread, we are witnessing heavy impacts on low- and moderate-income communities as small businesses shutter, workers are laid off, and more and more households find themselves in unexpected financial circumstances. Low-income individuals and households are more vulnerable to illness and potential economic disruption for a variety of reasons, including lower availability of paid sick leave ...
Community Development Research Brief , Issue 05 , Pages 01

Journal Article
The Mental Health Implications of COVID-19 on Low-Income Communities and Communities of Color

Shelter-in-place and social distancing measures have been critical for “flattening the curve” and managing the spread of COVID-19, but the sudden shock to our economic and social lives is raising concerns about the need to “flatten the second curve” of mental and behavioral health issues. A new report in JAMA Internal Medicine warns, “In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, it appears likely that there will be substantial increases in anxiety and depression, substance use, loneliness, and domestic violence; and with schools closed, there is a very real possibility of an epidemic of ...
Community Development Research Brief , Issue 02 , Pages 01

Journal Article
Impacts of COVID-19 on Nonprofits in the Western United States

Nonprofit organizations play an important role in the response to COVID-19, but the crisis is straining their ability to serve communities. This report summarizes data from a Federal Reserve survey to assess the impact of the pandemic on nonprofit respondents and the communities they serve in the Western United States.
Community Development Research Brief , Issue 03 , Pages 01-08

Journal Article
Holding Space: Underlying Real Estate Conditions for Nonprofits in the Los Angeles Region

Over the past decade, rising real estate costs have led to displacement of low-income residents and small businesses from Los Angeles’ changing neighborhoods. This trend raises questions about the long-term ability of nonprofit organizations that operate in these neighborhoods to remain in place. The recent economic downturn related to the COVID-19 pandemic makes understanding the baseline conditions that nonprofits face in the real estate market even more critical.Previous research suggests that some San Francisco Bay Area nonprofits, particularly those that rent operating space, have ...
Community Development Research Brief , Volume 2020 , Issue 04 , Pages 19

Journal Article
Climate Adaptation Investment and the Community Reinvestment Act

Climate change is already causing disruption to regional economic activity. Low-to-moderate income populations are highly vulnerable to these impacts, in part, because they often have fewer resources to adapt. The stability and prosperity of local economies in the face of climate change depends on how well the public, private, and civic sectors can come together to respond to the shocks and stresses of climate change. Collaborative efforts to fund climate adaptation not only reduce the burden on highly vulnerable populations, but they also offer the opportunity for co-benefits within a ...
Community Development Research Brief , Issue 05 , Pages 01-30

Journal Article
Housing Stability and Family Health: An Issue Brief

Soaring housing costs are the topic of many recent discussions in the San Francisco Bay Area, but receiving less attention are the implications of high cost housing on the health and well-being of families who are expecting or who have young children. This research brief presents a snapshot of housing instability for families with children in the Bay Area. It synthesizes a growing body of literature to reveal how housing instability during pregnancy and early childhood has particularly negative long-term consequences, while also highlighting promising ways to support housing stability. ...
Community Development Research Brief , Issue 1 , Pages 1-11

Journal Article
Student debt and default in the 12th District

Postsecondary educational expenses and student loan balances have been trending steadily upward, but persistent unemployment and weak economic conditions have created an alarming new trend of rising student loan defaults. This Brief examines broad trends in student borrowing in the Federal Reserve's 12th District, with an emphasis on students from low- and moderate-income households. The rise of student borrowing has important community development implications as it directly impacts the present and future financial well-being of LMI individuals.
Community Development Research Brief , Issue Dec , Pages 01-15

Journal Article
School quality and affordable housing in the Bay Area

Everyone knows the old real estate adage that the three most important factors in determining the value of a given property are location, location, and location. This is to say that place matters; a neighborhood confers a bundle of amenities to its residents that are specific to that geography. This bundle can include proximity to parks, small-scale retail offerings, high quality schools, and a variety of transportation options, as well as low crime rates and clean air. These amenities are arranged in a variety of configurations across space, and most households determine which aspects are ...
Community Development Research Brief , Issue June , Pages 1-10

Journal Article
Suburbanization of poverty in the Bay Area

Despite its persistent association with the "inner city," poverty has shifted toward the suburbs in the San Francisco Bay Area over the past decade. Using data from the 2000 census and the 2005-2009 ACS 5-year estimates, this research brief examines the changing geography of poverty in the Bay Area and its implications for the community development field.
Community Development Research Brief , Issue January , Pages 1-17

Journal Article
On the Sidelines of the Hot Economy

While the current economy is often characterized as ?hot,? marked by low unemployment, stable prices, and sustained economic growth, many residents are not enjoying the prosperity reflected in the aggregate measures of economic well-being. This report focuses on those who have not reaped the benefits of recent sustained growth in the economy. The report highlights groups who have faced barriers to economic participation and documents interrelated rising costs?particularly for housing, transportation, and childcare?that contribute to keeping people on the sidelines of the economy.
Community Development Research Brief , Issue 04 , Pages 01-18

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