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Series:Cascade Focus  Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia 

Report
Affordability and Availability of Rental Housing in the Third Federal Reserve District: 2012
Using the most recent data available, this suite of materials provides information on rental housing affordability conditions and trends in the Third Federal Reserve District from 2005 through 2010. This analysis not only explores the proportion of renters in the Third District with a housing cost burden but also investigates whether there are sufficient numbers of affordable rental units to meet the needs of low-income households. See "Affordability and Availability of Rental Housing in the Third Federal Reserve District: 2012" for the Cascade Focus PDF summarizing findings for the Third District, data tables with estimates for the states, metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), and counties that lie within the District, and supporting documentation.
AUTHORS: Wardrip, Keith; Hylands, Thomas; Strazanac, Joshua
DATE: 2012-December

Report
An Overview of the Nonprofit Foreclosure Counseling Industry in Philadelphia
The collapse of the housing market in the second half of the last decade created increased demand for counseling services to assist homeowners dealing with foreclosure. In Philadelphia, the nonprofit agencies that provide free housing counseling dealt with this surge in demand at the same time that funding became increasingly hard to secure. This paper provides a high-level overview of the state of the nonprofit foreclosure counseling industry in Philadelphia in the wake of the housing crash. The report includes information on the industry?s funding levels and sources, details what agencies must do to access the available funding, and summarizes the results of a survey on the challenges that counseling agencies face. Areas for further research on the subject are also identified.
AUTHORS: Hylands, Thomas
DATE: 2013-January

Report
Student Loan Trends in the Third Federal Reserve District
The state of the student loan market has received much attention in recent years, as the number of borrowers and their collective debt have risen dramatically. These trends have been particularly problematic in the wake of the 2007?09 recession because increased unemployment and suppressed income impair borrowers? ability to make payments on their loans. This report outlines the recent history of student borrowing in the Third Federal Reserve District and explores lending patterns, by the neighborhood income of the borrower, to better understand the implications for low- and moderate-income communities. Areas for further research to broaden understanding of the issue are also identified
AUTHORS: Hylands, Thomas
DATE: 2014-April

Report
Home Improvement Lending in the Third Federal Reserve District: Patterns by Income, Race, and Gender
Historically, local, state, and federal policies in the U.S. have encouraged households of all backgrounds to pursue homeownership because of the various benefits of owning a home, such as wealth building, protection against housing cost inflation, and psychological well-being, among others.1 Research has demonstrated that the financial, physical, and psychological benefits associated with owning a home have accrued to homeowners of all stripes. However, LMI, minority, and elderly households often face financial barriers to sustaining homeownership over the long run.
AUTHORS: Carlin, Alex
DATE: 2018-12

Report
Uneven Opportunity: Exploring Employers’ Educational Preferences for Middle-Skills Jobs
This analysis follows research published in 2015 by the Federal Reserve Banks of Philadelphia, Cleveland, and Atlanta on ?opportunity occupations,? which are defined as occupations that pay at least the national annual median wage, adjusted for differences in local consumption prices, and that are generally considered accessible to a worker without a four-year college degree (Wardrip et al., 2015). Among the primary findings in the original research is that, in online job advertisements, employers often express a preference for a college-educated candidate even for occupations that have not traditionally required one. Further, the authors find that even for the same occupation, employers? educational expectations can be much higher in some metropolitan (metro) areas than in others.
AUTHORS: Wardrip, Keith; Andreason, Stuart; De Zeeuw, Mels
DATE: 2017-Jan

Report
Affordability and Availability of Rental Housing in the Third Federal Reserve District: 2015
In the aftermath of the foreclosure crisis and subsequent tightening of mortgage credit, many households have turned to the rental housing market, increasing pressure on an already limited supply of low-cost units. Using the most recent data available, this issue of Cascade Focus analyzes trends in rental housing affordability in the Third Federal Reserve District between 2007 and 2012. In addition to examining rates of housing cost burden for low-income renter households, this analysis evaluates whether the supply of affordable rental units is sufficient to meet the need. Lastly, this report presents a series of in-depth fact sheets for the Third District, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, and 14 metropolitan areas within these three states, as well as the City of Philadelphia. Note: Estimates from reports published by the department in 2010, 2011, and 2012 should not be compared with estimates in this analysis because of the differences in geographic areas covered, data sets used, and methodologies employed.
AUTHORS: Divringi, Eileen
DATE: 2015-February

Report
Gentrification and Changes in the Stock of Low-Cost Rental Housing in Philadelphia, 2000 to 2014
Philadelphia has experienced increased rental housing affordability challenges in recent years, especially in neighborhoods that have undergone gentrification. This report explores one aspect of gentrification?s impact on housing costs by examining its association with changes in Philadelphia?s stock of units that rent for less than $750 per month. Using tract-level U.S. Census Bureau data, this report finds that, between 2000 and 2014, the city lost one out of five units with rents that fell below this cost threshold. These losses were especially acute in gentrifying neighborhoods, as these neighborhoods lost low-cost units at over five times the rate of nongentrifying neighborhoods. These losses were mitigated by the city?s stock of federally subsidized affordable housing, but 20 percent of these subsidized units will see their affordability restriction periods expire within the next five years. Of particular concern are the 23 federally subsidized properties ? comprising 1,099 units ? that are located in gentrifying neighborhoods and owned by for-profit entities. These properties may be at higher risk of converting to market rate and subsequently becoming unaffordable for lower-income renters. These findings confirm that gentrification has been associated with especially acute losses of low-cost rental housing in Philadelphia. The preservation of federally subsidized units would help stem the city?s loss of housing that is affordable to lower-income residents and would give these residents greater access to improving neighborhoods that may otherwise be financially unattainable.
AUTHORS: Chizeck, Seth
DATE: 2017-January

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