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Content Type:Briefing 

Briefing
Massachusetts employment growth 1996–2006: effects of industry performance and industry composition

This brief examines the effects of industry performance and industry composition on overall changes in Massachusetts employment in the period 1996 to 2006. Through 2000, Massachusetts enjoyed strong economic expansion. Around the time of the nationwide recession of 2001, however, the Massachusetts economy experienced a relatively severe setback, and the state has yet to regain as many jobs in the ensuing expansion as it lost in the downturn. ; The study finds that Massachusetts industries generally experienced slower employment growth than their national counterparts in the early 2000s. The ...
Public Policy Brief

Briefing
The U.S. retail payments system in transition : Federal Reserve initiatives

This article explores the changing landscape of U.S. retail payments: trends, the Fed's role, and the future of payments.
Payments System Research Briefing , Issue Aug

Briefing
Retaining recent college graduates in New England: an update on current trends

This policy brief presents some basic facts about the retention of recent college graduates and changes in retention over time. It considers how New England compares with other divisions, what factors affect its ability to retain graduates, and the reasons why recent college graduates choose to leave New England. It also highlights a Boston-area initiative to promote internships as a retention tool.
New England Public Policy Center Policy Brief

Briefing
Aging and declining populations in northern New England: is there a role for immigration?

In hundreds of communities across northern New England, the population is aging rapidly and becoming smaller. The entire country is aging, but northern New England stands out: Among the populations of all US states, those of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont have the top-three highest median ages, respectively. The situation is even more extreme in northern New England?s rural counties, where the populations of the smallest towns generally are substantially older than those of the rest of the region. These communities also have seen the slowest, or even negative, population growth over the ...
New England Public Policy Center Regional Brief , Paper 19-2

Briefing
Additional slack in the economy: the poor recovery in labor force participation during this business cycle

This public policy brief examines labor force participation rates in this recession and recovery and compares them with the cyclical patterns in earlier business cycles. Measured relative to the business cycle peak in March 2001, labor force participation rates almost four years later have not recovered as much as usual, and the discrepancies are large. ; Among age-by-sex groups, the participation shortfall is especially pronounced at young and prime ages: Only for men and women age 55 and older has participation risen more than is usual four years after the business cycle peak. ; The brief ...
Public Policy Brief

Briefing
The Challenge of Declining K–12 Enrollment in Northern New England

COVID-related public health concerns and declining tax revenues raised or continue to raise important questions throughout the country about when and how to restart schools and how to fund them in the near term. For communities across northern New England, there are also fundamental, longer-term concerns over declines in the student population that will still confront districts well beyond the current academic year. In every county in New Hampshire, Maine, andVermont, the number of young residents has declined over the last two decades. Northern New England is not alone in facing this ...
New England Public Policy Center Regional Brief , Paper 2020-04

Briefing
Small business lending during the recession

Access to credit enables businesses to smooth income streams and take advantage of growth opportunities. Without credit, a business may be forced to cut production or restrain growth. If credit constraints affect businesses across economic sectors, the result could be widespread declines in production and employment. Since the recession started in 2007, there has been a growing concern that small businesses may lack adequate access to credit. This Economic Brief examines the complexity of small business credit issues
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue Feb

Briefing
Recent Trends in Residential Segregation in New England

Residential segregation in Boston has drawn considerable attention in recent years, but much less notice has been given to the issue with respect to the rest of New England. This regional brief focuses on residential segregation between all minority groups and non-Hispanic white residents in metro areas throughout the region. New England’s population is predominately non-Hispanic white; however, the region has diversified considerably since 1990, as most of the population growth has occurred among minority groups. Residential segregation by race/ethnicity declined over that same period in ...
New England Public Policy Center Regional Brief , Paper 2020-01

Briefing
Basel III and the continuing evolution of bank capital regulation

Adopted in part as a response to the 2007-08 financial crisis, the Basel III accord is the most recent revision to international capital standards for banks. Basel III primarily relies on methods similar to those of Basel II for assessing the relative risks of different types of assets. The main focus of the changes in Basel III, rather, is to increase banks' equity capital requirements. This emphasis is a reflection of the conclusions drawn from the crisis: that bank fragility is more prevalent than previously thought and that the motivation for governments to assist banks in poor financial ...
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue Jun

Briefing
Interchange fees and network rules: a shift from antitrust litigation to regulatory measures in various countries

This article summarizes the global trends in public authority involvement in payment card pricing and rules, examines reasons for the shift to regulatory measures, and considers potential implications for the United States.
Payments System Research Briefing , Issue Oct , Pages 1-5

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