Search Results

Showing results 1 to 10 of approximately 341.

(refine search)
Content Type:Briefing 

Small business lending during the recession

Access to credit enables businesses to smooth income streams and take advantage of growth opportunities. Without credit, a business may be forced to cut production or restrain growth. If credit constraints affect businesses across economic sectors, the result could be widespread declines in production and employment. Since the recession started in 2007, there has been a growing concern that small businesses may lack adequate access to credit. This Economic Brief examines the complexity of small business credit issues
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue Feb

Inequality in and across Cities

Inequality in the United States has an important spatial component. More-skilled workers tend to live in larger cities where they earn higher wages. Less-skilled workers make lower wages and do not experience similar gains even when they live in those cities. This dynamic implies that larger cities are also more unequal. These relationships appear to have become more pronounced as inequality has increased. The evidence points to externalities among high-skilled workers as a significant contributor to those patterns.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue October

What Do Recent Studies Say About Crime and Policing? Part 2

Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Volume 21 , Issue 29b

The New England rental market

New England?s rental prices are high but relatively affordable to most residents.
New England Public Policy Center Policy Brief

Paper, plastic... or phone?

This article examines mobile-phone payment and banking alternatives in the United States. It explores prospects for growth, available technologies, and the outlook for one or more technologies coming to dominate the market.
Payments System Research Briefing , Issue Dec

Potential effects of an increase in debit card fees

Recently announced changes to debit card interchange fees could lead to an increase in the cost of debit cards to consumers. This brief analyzes the potential effects of an increase in debit card fees or in bank account fees by using the results of the 2008 and 2009 Survey of Consumer Payment Choice (SCPC). The main findings are that: 1) consumers with the least amount of education (less than a high school diploma), the lowest annual income (below $25,000), and the youngest age (under 25 years) consider cost to be the most important payment characteristic. It is probable that these consumers ...
Public Policy Brief

Interchange fees and network rules: a shift from antitrust litigation to regulatory measures in various countries

This article summarizes the global trends in public authority involvement in payment card pricing and rules, examines reasons for the shift to regulatory measures, and considers potential implications for the United States.
Payments System Research Briefing , Issue Oct , Pages 1-5

Are the Effects of Fiscal Policy Asymmetric?

Economic research on the size of the fiscal multiplier has assumed that the effects of changes in government spending are symmetric ? that is, they influence economic output to the same degree whether the change is an increase or a decrease. Richmond Fed research indicates that this is not the case; the fiscal multiplier does vary according to the direction of the fiscal action and also varies with the stage of the economic cycle. This finding sheds light on likely outcomes of fiscal policies and helps account for inconsistent estimates of the multiplier in the literature.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue September

Why Is the U.S. Lagging in Adopting Mobile Payments?

Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Volume 21 , Issue 21

Will a Surge in Labor Force Participation Impede Unemployment Rate Improvement?

The labor force participation rate has been falling since 2000, a trend that accelerated somewhat during the recession of 2007-09. Some economists and journalists have questioned whether recent improvements in the labor market will cause non-participants to re-enter the labor force at a faster rate, thus offsetting job growth and impeding further declines in the unemployment rate. But recent worker-flow research suggests that this scenario is unlikely.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue Aug


FILTER BY Content Type


Sablik, Timothy 28 items

Price, David A. 25 items

Bradford, Terri 22 items

Lubik, Thomas A. 20 items

Haltom, Renee Courtois 19 items

Rhodes, Karl 19 items

show more (228)

FILTER BY Jel Classification

E42 8 items

G21 6 items

G23 6 items

E58 3 items

E21 2 items

E24 2 items

show more (26)

FILTER BY Keywords

Payment systems 23 items

Payments 19 items

COVID-19 18 items

Monetary policy 17 items

Unemployment 15 items

Business cycles 15 items

show more (382)