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Content Type:Briefing 

Assessing GSE Mortgage Portfolios’ Exposure to Past and Future Flood Risk

This article evaluates the exposure of government-sponsored enterprises' (GSEs) mortgage portfolios to flood risks as projected by the First Street Foundation and analyzes the realized impact of Hurricane Irma on mortgage defaults. The analysis leverages extensive GSE data spanning from 1999 to 2023 and utilizes risk projections through 2050 to provide a comprehensive view of both potential future risks and actual past outcomes.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Volume 24 , Issue 22

Cyclical versus secular: decomposing the recent decline in U.S. labor force participation

Since the start of the Great Recession, one of the most striking developments in the U.S. labor market has been the pronounced decline in the labor force participation rate. The crucial issue in interpreting the decline in U.S. labor force participation is how much of the decline reflects cyclical factors and how much reflects more persistent developments such as the demographic effects of an aging population. We provide a decomposition of cyclical versus trend movements in the labor force participation rate, informed by the joint dynamics of this variable with the employment-to-population ...
Public Policy Brief

How Much Do Nonbank Transaction Accounts Improve Access to Digital Payments for Unbanked Households?

Nonbank transaction accounts—such as prepaid card accounts or accounts with online payment service providers—can help unbanked households make safe and affordable digital payments. But data suggest that they may not be sufficient to achieve digital payments inclusion. Less than half of unbanked households had these accounts in 2021; the rest either used paper-based transaction products or relied solely on cash.
Payments System Research Briefing

How Does Trade Policy Get Decided?

The interests of districts play a crucial role in trade policymaking. Districts with heterogenous political and economic preferences form coalitions and bargain in the legislature to reach an acceptable trade policy. Such complicated process has been overlooked in canonical political economy models of trade. Our work brings to focus the role districts play in the political process by proposing a model that aggregates heterogeneous district preferences into a national trade policy. The approach uncovers districts and sectors that are more influential in the political process and identifies ...
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Volume 22 , Issue 11

Discussing Data: The Elevator Pitch

Researchers and custodians of data are often tasked with explaining their data to unfamiliar audiences. There exists a knowledge gap that can be challenging, particularly when attempting to communicate research that uses complex or less well-known data. This paper describes an “elevator pitch” that can be used to quickly and efficiently present core characteristics of data. Specifically, it outlines seven core characteristics that can be used to create such a pitch. Additionally, it provides examples of how this compact description can be integrated into research papers, presentations, or ...
Technical Briefings , Paper TB 18-03

Removing Conflict of Interest for Agents of Homebuyers

In real estate transactions, sellers' agents have weak incentives to market homes sufficiently long to secure top prices for their clients. Buyers' agents, however, face completely backward incentives: They get paid more when their clients pay more for their homes. We discuss an a la carte compensation model for buyers' agents that eliminates this conflict of interest.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Volume 23 , Issue 34

The Role of Central Bank Lending in the Conduct of Monetary Policy

Central banks can extend credit in pursuit of different policy objectives, two of which are discussed in this Economic Brief. First, lending can be used to achieve interest rate control. Second, lending can be used to provide liquidity insurance. A narrow view of central bank lending emphasizes the first objective, in which subsidized credit to targeted market participants is not seen as essential. A broader view considers targeted lending as sometimes necessary. Which perspective is favored is largely, though not wholly, dependent on judgments about the prevalence of frictions that inhibit ...
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue December

The Puzzle of Payments Security: Fitting the Pieces Together to Protect the Retail Payments System

This article offers highlights from the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City's fifth international payments conference, "The Puzzle of Retail Payments Security: Fitting the Pieces Together to Protect the Retail Payments System," hosted June 25-26, 2015.
Payments System Research Briefing , Issue Oct. , Pages 1-5

Unsustainable fiscal policy : implications for monetary policy

The debt of the U.S. government is at historically high levels, but how do we know whether debt levels are worrisome? This Economic Brief argues that the current fiscal position is not sustainable. Though financial markets seem unconcerned, for the time being, about U.S. fiscal health, as evidenced by low rates on Treasury securities, lawmakers should not be complacent. Expectations are liable to change as large fiscal imbalances persist, with potentially devastating consequences for the U.S. economy and monetary policy.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue Jul

How Do Small Business Finance and Monetary Policy Interact?

Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Volume 20 , Issue 11 , Pages 6 pgs.


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