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Manufacturing and Service Sector Roles in the Evolution of Innovation and Productivity
The relative size of the manufacturing sector in an economy depends on its stage of development. As economies become more industrialized, employment and output increase rapidly. Eventually, for large-enough levels of development, the contribution of the manufacturing sector starts declining in favor of the service sector.
Domestic Innovation and International Technology Diffusion as Sources of Comparative Advantage
Productivity differences across countries determine patterns of international trade?hence, comparative advantage. We use a multi-industry model of international trade to estimate a measure of industry productivity. We then quantify the effect that domestic innovation and technology diffusion have in explaining differences in productivity across countries and industries. Consistent with standard growth theories, we find the following: (i) Higher-income countries benefit more from domestic innovation than lower-income countries, whereas lower-income countries benefit more from technology ...
Aging and Wealth Inequality
An aging population may reduce wealth inequality.
Unequal Pink Slips? Gender and the Risk of Unemployment
In this article, we discuss another facet of the difference between men and women in the labor force: their exposure to unemployment. We complement our analysis with a discussion of the black-white exposure to unemployment and show that it behaves noticeably differently than male-female exposure.
What Does China’s Rise in Patents Mean? A Look at Quality vs. Quantity
Using three measurements of patent quality, we argue that there is still room for China to improve its innovative activities. Comparing the number of patent applications and patent grants across countries, we see that although the United States and Japan have been global leaders in innovation for a long time, South Korea and China are catching up fast. If China sustains its large innovation investment and shifts its focus from quantity to quality, together with an improvement in intellectual property rights, the likelihood of becoming one of the next innovation leaders could be much higher.
Mixing the Melting Pot: The Impact of Immigration on Labor Markets
Some people argue that immigrants make life harder for workers who are already U.S. citizens. But the data don?t show much of a correlation between immigration and the unemployment rate or between immigration and wages.
Which Countries and Industries Contributed the Most to the Decline in Trade Barriers Around the World?
Diverse trends across countries and industries are behind the global decline in trade barriers.
Measures of Pollution
Pollution in the United States rises with economic activity, but at a noticeably lower pace.
Evolution of the Teen Abortion Rate in the United States
The number of teenage girls who have had an abortion has changed noticeably since the 1970s.