Gains from Trade: Does Sectoral Heterogeneity Matter?
This paper assesses the quantitative importance of including sectoral heterogeneity in computing the gains from trade. Our framework draws from Caliendo and Parro (2015) and Alvarez and Lucas (2007) and has sectoral heterogeneity along five dimensions, including the elasticity of trade to trade costs, the value-added share, and the input-output structure. The key parameter we estimate is the sectoral trade elasticity, and we use the Simonovska and Waugh (2014) simulated method of moments estimator with micro price data. Our estimates range from 2.97 to 8.94, considerably lower than those ...
How much of South Korea’s growth miracle can be explained by trade policy?
South Korea?s growth miracle has been well documented. A large set of institutional and policy reforms in the early 1960s is thought to have contributed to the country?s extraordinary performance. In this paper, we assess the importance of one key set of policies, the trade policy reforms in Korea, as well as the concurrent GATT tariff reductions. We develop a model of neoclassical growth and trade that highlights two forces by which lower trade barriers can lead to increased per worker GDP: comparative advantage and specialization, and capital accumulation. We calibrate the model and ...
Curbing unemployment in Europe: are there lessons from Ireland and the Netherlands?
Since the mid-1980s, unemployment rates in Ireland and the Netherlands have plummeted, while the average rate for the European Union has maintained its longtime high level. Ambitious labor market reforms_including wage moderation and the tightening of unemployment benefits_have helped to bring the Irish and Dutch rates down. Other European countries would benefit from adopting similar reforms, but they are unlikely to see the same dramatic improvement in their unemployment numbers.
The effects of a booming economy on the U.S. trade deficit
The robust growth of the U.S. economy between 1996 and 1999 spurred U.S. demand for foreign goods and contributed to a surge in the U.S. trade deficit. An analysis of the effects of the expansion on the trade balance suggests that the economic boom can account for roughly a third of the sharp rise in the merchandise trade deficit during this period.
Vertical specialization and the changing nature of world trade
A major feature of globalization has been the enormous increase in international flows of goods and services: countries are now trading much more with each other. In this article, the authors demonstrate the greater role vertical specialization is playing in these increased flows. Vertical specialization occurs when a country uses imported intermediate parts to create a good it later exports--that is, the country links sequentially with other countries to produce a final good. Deriving evidence from four case studies as well as OECD input-output tables, the authors reveal that vertical ...
Asia crisis postmortem: where did the money go and did the United States benefit?
The Asia crisis was originally expected to affect the U.S. economy adversely, mainly through reduced exports to, and increased imports from, the crisis countries. However, U.S. GDP growth in 1998, at 4.3 percent, was surprisingly strong. This article examines the effect of the crisis on the U.S. economy, using a quantitative approach that focuses on capital outflows from Asia. It finds that banks were the primary mechanism by which the funds left Asia, and that these funds did not flow directly to the United States. Rather, they went first to offshore banking centers and then to European ...
The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade
Dramatic changes are occurring in the nature of international trade. Production processes increasingly involve a sequential, vertical trading chain stretching across many countries, with each country specializing in particular stages of a good's production sequence. We document a key aspect of these vertical linkages--the use of imported inputs in producing goods that are exported -- which we call vertical specialization. Using input-output tables from the OECD and emerging market countries we estimate that vertical specialization accounts for up to 30 percent of world exports, and has grown ...
The trade comovement problem in international macroeconomics
Recent empirical research finds that pairs of countries with stronger trade linkages tend to have more highly correlated business cycles. We assess whether the standard international business cycle framework can replicate this intuitive result. We employ a three-country model with transportation costs. We simulate the effects of increased goods market integration under two asset market structures: complete markets and international financial autarky. Our main finding is that under international financial autarky the model can generate stronger correlations for pairs of countries that trade ...
Is there endogenous long-run growth?: Evidence from the U.S. and the U.K
The key feature of endogenous growth models is that they imply that permanent changes in government policy can have permanent effects on growth rates. In this paper, we develop and implement an empirical framework to test this implication. In a regression of growth rates on current and lagged policy variables, the sum of the slope coefficients for each policy variable should be nonzero (zero) for endogenous (exogenous) growth models. In our estimation, we use time series data spanning up to 100 years for the United States and 160 years for the United Kingdom. We find that the implication for ...
Structural change in an open economy
We study the importance of international trade in structural change. Our framework has both productivity and trade cost shocks, and allows for non-unitary income and substitution elasticities. We calibrate our model to investigate South Korea's structural change between 1971 and 2005. We find that the shock processes, propagated through the model's two main transmission mechanisms, non-homothetic preferences and the open economy, explain virtually all of the evolution of agriculture and services labor shares, and the rising part of the hump-shape in manufacturing. Counterfactual exercises ...