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Author:Wheelock, David C. 

Working Paper
The contribution of on-site examination ratings to an emprircal model of bank failures

This paper investigates how well regulator examinations predict bank failures, and how best to incorporate examination information into an econometric model of time-to-failure. We estimate proportional hazard models with time-varying covariates and find that examiner ratings help explain the failure hazard. Both the overall rating of a bank's condition and management, i.e., the composite CAMELS rating, and ratings of specific components contain information. In addition, we find that the marginal "effect" of ratings is non-linear, in that the impact of a rating downgrade on the probability ...
Working Papers , Paper 1999-023

Journal Article
Deposit insurance reform

In the cover story, find out why some bankers are encouraging Congress to raise the ceiling for insurance on deposits to $130,000 from $100,000 per account. Opponents point out that in the wake of the last increase, the S&L crisis occurred.
The Regional Economist , Issue Oct. , Pages 4-9

Journal Article
What happens to banks when house prices fall? U.S. regional housing busts of the 1980s and 1990s

The recent rapid appreciation of house prices in many U.S. markets has prompted concern over the possible effects of a sharp decline in prices, especially for commercial banks and other real estate lenders. This article examines regional real estate booms and busts in the 1980s and 1990s: Only about half of state house price booms were followed by a severe decline in prices, but large declines occurred in several states that did not have a prior boom. Banks in states that had large house price declines experienced high loan default rates and, thus, low profit and high failure rates. Although ...
Review , Volume 88 , Issue Sep , Pages 413-430

Working Paper
Which banks choose deposit insurance? Evidence of adverse and moral hazard in a voluntary insurance system

The sharp increase in depository institution failures in recent years has drawn attention to the moral hazard created by under-priced deposit insurance. To identify possible reforms, researchers have begun to consider alternative deposit insurance arrangements. This paper contributes to that literature by examining the deposit insurance system of Kansas, which operated from 1909 to 1929. The Kansas system had a number of regulations that were intended to limit risk-taking, and membership was made voluntary to assuage objections that insurance forces conservative banks to protect depositors of ...
Working Papers , Paper 1991-005

Journal Article
What Can We Learn from the Spanish Flu Pandemic of 1918-19 for COVID-19?

As the Spanish flu became more widespread and its dangers apparent, many cities sought to contain the virus by imposing restrictions on social and economic interactions.
Economic Synopses , Issue 30

Journal Article
Trends in the efficiency of Federal Reserve check processing operations

The Monetary Control Act of 1980 requires the Federal Reserve to charge customers for financial services, with the intent of improving the efficiency with which Fed offices deliver those services. Prior studies found little improvement in the efficiency of Fed check processing operations after pricing was implemented in 1982. This article examines the efficiency of Fed check operations using a longer sample period (1980:Q1?2003:Q3) than previous studies and new methods for estimating efficiency. The authors find that the median office became somewhat less efficient when pricing was ...
Review , Volume 86 , Issue Sep , Pages 7-20

Journal Article
Big banks in small places: are community banks being driven out of rural markets?

The shares of total U.S. banking assets and deposits held by the very largest banking organizations have increased markedly over the past 25 years, while the shares held by small ?community? banks have declined. Advances in information technology may have reduced the advantages of small scale, close proximity, and local ties that traditionally have given small, community-focused banks a competitive advantage in lending to small businesses and other ?informationally opaque? borrowers. This article examines trends in deposit shares of banks of different sizes in rural U.S. counties. If the ...
Review , Volume 95 , Issue May , Pages 199-218

Journal Article
Furnishing an “Elastic Currency”: The Founding of the Fed and the Liquidity of the U.S. Banking System

This article examines how the U.S. banking system responded to the founding of the Federal Reserve System (Fed) in 1914. The Fed was established to bring an end to the frequent crises that plagued the U.S. banking system, which reform proponents attributed to the nation?s ?inelastic? currency stock and dependence on interbank relationships to allocate liquidity and operate the payments system. Reform advocates noted that banking panics tended to occur at times of the year when the demands for currency and bank loans were normally at seasonal peaks and money markets were at their tightest. ...
Review , Volume 100 , Issue 1 , Pages 17-44

Journal Article
Have acquisitions of failed banks increased the concentration of U.S. banking markets?

During 2007-10, failures eliminated 318 U.S. commercial banks and savings institutions, about 4 percent of the total number of banks operating at the end of 2006. The assets and deposits of many failed banks were acquired by institutions that already had offices in markets served by the failed banks. This article investigates the impact of in-market acquisitions of failed banks on the concentration of local U.S. banking markets. Most banks that failed during 2007-10 were small, and their acquisitions generally had little impact on market concentration. Acquisitions of larger banks that ...
Review , Volume 93 , Issue May , Pages 155-168


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