A new era
The U.S. payments system has entered a new era ? one that is witnessing a marked decline in the use of paper checks and a sharp increase in the use of electronic payments.
Labor compensation and inflation during business expansion
Nonbanks in the payments system
Nonbanks have always been a key component of the nation's payments system. In recent years, however, nonbanks have become even more prominent. This heightened visibility raises several questions. In which payments activities are nonbanks engaged? What roles do nonbanks play in specific payments types? What types of risk are potentially associated with nonbank participation? This paper begins to address these questions. Preliminary findings include: (1) Nonbanks are involved in a myriad of activities and roles, both in traditional and emerging payments types; (2) Nonbank business relationships ...
The natural rate of unemployment: concepts and issues
Payment of interest on reserves
Monetary policy without reserve requirements: analytical issues
Reserve requirements have traditionally been viewed as a key instrument of monetary policy. Indeed, textbook discussions of monetary policy typically center on the role of reserve requirements in determining the size of the money multiplier and the magnitude of bank credit expansion. In recent years, however, there has been a significant decline in the use of reserve requirements in the United States and in other industrialized countries. Many countries have made substantial cuts in the level of reserve requirements, and some countries have eliminated reserve requirements altogether.> The ...
Electronic payments in the U.S. economy : an overview
Business publications are filled these days with stories about the digital or electronic economy. One routinely reads about e-commerce, e-business, and e-banking. Terms such as e-mail and e-tickets have entered the common lexicon. Some analysts have gone so far as to proclaim that the U.S. economy is being fundamentally transformed and is entering a "new age" of unparalleled growth and opportunity.> While such a view is open to debate, clearly some major, potentially far-ranging, changes are under way. The most visible and most dramatic involve e-commerce. A growing amount of economic ...
The changing role of reserve requirements in monetary policy