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Author:Wardrip, Keith 

Discussion Paper
Opportunity Occupations in the Southeast

Opportunity occupations—or opportunity employment—are jobs that do not require a bachelor’s degree and pay above a regionally adjusted median wage. This article takes a look at trends in the Southeast. For a deeper look at trends in opportunity occupations, see also "Opportunity Occupations Revisited: Exploring Employment for Sub-Baccalaureate Workers Across Metro Areas and Over Time."
Workforce Currents , Paper 2019-04

Discussion Paper

Our work is motivated by two concepts: first, that economic mobility could be improved by greater opportunities for occupational mobility, particularly out of lower-wage employment, and second, that a skills-based approach to occupational mobility could uncover potential transitions that may not be obvious when only considering more traditional qualifications such as years of directly relevant experience or higher levels of formal education.
Community Affairs Discussion Paper

Uneven Opportunity: Exploring Employers’ Educational Preferences for Middle-Skills Jobs

This analysis follows research published in 2015 by the Federal Reserve Banks of Philadelphia, Cleveland, and Atlanta on ?opportunity occupations,? which are defined as occupations that pay at least the national annual median wage, adjusted for differences in local consumption prices, and that are generally considered accessible to a worker without a four-year college degree (Wardrip et al., 2015). Among the primary findings in the original research is that, in online job advertisements, employers often express a preference for a college-educated candidate even for occupations that have not ...
Cascade Focus

Journal Article
Tracking Philanthropic Support for Community and Economic Development: New Research from Two Federal Reserve Banks

How many grants do large foundations direct towards community and economic development (CED) activities? What kinds of activities are supported with these funds? Which metro areas receive the most philanthropic support and which receive the least?1 And why do some metro areas receive more than others? These are the questions that researchers at the community development departments of the Federal Reserve Banks of Philadelphia and Atlanta answer in newly completed research.
Cascade , Volume 4

Discussion Paper
Residential Migration, Entry, and Exit as Seen Through the Lens of Credit Bureau Data

We analyze a large, nationally representative anonymized data set of consumers with a credit report from 2002 to 2010. This is a period that encompasses a boom and bust in consumer credit. Using census data, we classify consumers into four categories of relative neighborhood income and find that, over time, the number and proportion of consumers with a credit report fell in low- and moderate-income neighborhoods and rose in higher-income neighborhoods. Population trends evident from census data explain only a portion of these changes in the location of the credit bureau population. In most ...
Consumer Finance Institute discussion papers , Paper 13-4

Affordability and Availability of Rental Housing in the Third Federal Reserve District: 2012

Using the most recent data available, this suite of materials provides information on rental housing affordability conditions and trends in the Third Federal Reserve District from 2005 through 2010. This analysis not only explores the proportion of renters in the Third District with a housing cost burden but also investigates whether there are sufficient numbers of affordable rental units to meet the needs of low-income households. See "Affordability and Availability of Rental Housing in the Third Federal Reserve District: 2012" for the Cascade Focus PDF summarizing findings for the Third ...
Cascade Focus

Journal Article
The Reinvestment Fund at 30: Insights and New Directions

Thirty years ago, a small group of community developers, activists, and business people formed a community loan fund in Philadelphia called the Delaware Valley Community Reinvestment Fund. In 1999, the organization was renamed The Reinvestment Fund (TRF). TRF is certified as a community development financial institution (CDFI) by the U.S. Department of the Treasury?s CDFI Fund. Since 1985, TRF has made $1.5 billion in loans and investments and has financed housing, community facilities, supermarkets, commercial real estate, and energy-efficiency projects. The CDFI has been a leader in ...
Cascade , Volume 4


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