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Author:Townsend, Robert M. 

Discussion Paper
Small-business access to trade credit: some evidence of ethnic differences

Based on findings from a survey of Black Households, this paper highlights socioeconomic and demographic factors that many influence the utilization of different financial markets. In addition, it discusses the potentially important role that informal financial networks can play in racial/ethnic communities. We propose that education programs, proactive community participation and partnerships between financial institutions and community organizations are important for greater access to credit and financial services among Black Households.
Consumer and Community Affairs Policy Studies , Paper 2000-2

Journal Article
Small business finance in two Chicago minority neighborhoods

The authors use survey data to measure the use of formal and informal sources of financing by owners of small businesses in two ethnic neighborhoods. The authors find substantial differences across ethnic groups in the amount of start-up funding obtained and in the use of trade credit.
Economic Perspectives , Volume 23 , Issue Q II , Pages 46-62

Journal Article
The credit risk-contingency system of an Asian development bank

This article offers a new method for the evaluation of financial institutions, one that combines socioeconomic survey data with appropriate accounting standards. A government-operated development bank in Thailand is found to be offering a risk-contingency or insurance system while being regulated as a more standard, loan-generating bank. Farmer clients experiencing adverse shocks receive indemnities that improve their well-being. With proper provisioning and accounts, that welfare gain could be weighed against premia or government subsidies.
Economic Perspectives , Volume 25 , Issue Q III

Conference Paper
Community development banking and Financial Institutions Act: a critique with recommendations

Proceedings , Paper 49

Working Paper
Firms as clubs in Walrasian markets with private information : technical appendix

This paper proves the Welfare Theorems and the existence of a competitive equilibrium for the club economies with private information in Prescott and Townsend (2005). The proofs cover lottery economies with a finite number of goods and without free disposal. A mapping based on Negishi (1960) is used.
Working Paper , Paper 05-11

Working Paper
Portfolio choices and risk preferences in village economies

We use a model of optimal portfolio choice to measure heterogeneity in risk aversion among households in Thai villages. There is substantial heterogeneity in risk preferences, positively correlated in most villages with alternative estimates based on a full risk-sharing model.
Working Papers , Paper 706

Report
A model of circulating private debt

We study the possible specialness of circulating as opposed to noncirculating private securities using models whose equilibria imply the existence of both. The models are pure exchange setups with spatial separation and with the potential for a variety of intertemporal trades. We find a sense in which unregulated circulating private securities are troublesome. It can happen that in order for an equilibrium to exist, the amounts of circulating debts issued at the same time in spatially and informationally separated markets have to satisfy restrictions not implied by individual maximization and ...
Staff Report , Paper 83

Journal Article
How do minorities fund small business start-ups? Two Chicago neighborhoods offer insight

The Region , Volume 13 , Issue Sep , Pages 10-13,26

Working Paper
Supplier relationships and small business use of trade credit

This paper sheds some light on the empirical importance of supplier relationships, including ethnic ties, for the use of trade credit by minority-owned small businesses. Results based on the 1993 National Survey of Small Business Finance (NSSBF) indicate that ethnic differences in the use of trade credit are present after conditioning on an extensive list of control variables. This holds especially for Black-owned businesses, and we find that they use less trade credit, are less likely to take advantage of discounts for early payment, and are more likely to have payments past due. We use ...
Working Paper Series , Paper WP-00-28

Report
Barriers to household risk management: evidence from India

Financial engineering offers the potential to significantly reduce the consumption fluctuations faced by individuals, households, and firms. Yet much of this potential remains unfulfilled. This paper studies the adoption of an innovative rainfall insurance product designed to compensate low-income Indian farmers in the event of insufficient rainfall during the primary monsoon season. We first document relatively low adoption of this new risk management product: Only 5-10 percent of households purchase the insurance, even though they overwhelmingly cite rainfall variability as their most ...
Staff Reports , Paper 373

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