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Author:Teo, Wing Leong 

Journal Article
Inventories and optimal monetary policy
We introduce inventories into a standard New Keynesian Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium model to study the effect on the design of optimal monetary policy. The possibility of inventory investment changes the transmission mechanism in the model by de-coupling production from final consumption. This allows for a higher degree of consumption smoothing since firms can add excess production to their inventory holdings. We consider both Ramsey-optimal monetary policy and a monetary policy that maximizes consumer welfare over a set of simple interest rate feedback rules. Surprisingly, we find that in contrast to a model without inventories, Ramsey-optimal monetary policy in a model with inventories slightly deviates from complete inflation stabilization, but the welfare differences are minor. Moreover, we also find in line with the existing literature that the application of simple rules comes very close to replicating Ramsey-optimal outcomes.
AUTHORS: Lubik, Thomas A.; Teo, Wing Leong
DATE: 2009-10

Working Paper
Inventories, inflation dynamics, and the New Keynesian Phillips curve
We introduce inventories into an otherwise standard New Keynesian model and study the implications for inflation dynamics. Inventory holdings are motivated as a means to generate sales for demand-constrained firms. We derive various representations of the New Keynesian Phillips curve with inventories and show that one of these specifications is observationally equivalent to the standard model with respect to the behavior of inflation when the model's cross-equation restrictions are imposed. However, the driving variable in the New Keynesian Phillips curve - real marginal cost - is unobservable and has to be proxied by, for instance, unit labor costs. An alternative approach is to impute marginal cost by using the model's optimality conditions. We show that the stock-sales ratio is linked to marginal cost. We also estimate these various specifications of the New Keynesian Phillips curve using GMM. We find that predictive power of the inventory-specification at best approaches that of the standard model, but does not improve upon it. We conclude that inventories do not play a role in explaining inflation dynamics within our New Keynesian Phillips curve framework.
AUTHORS: Teo, Wing Leong; Lubik, Thomas A.
DATE: 2010

Working Paper
Deep habits in the New Keynesian Phillips curve
We derive and estimate a New Keynesian Phillips curve (NKPC) in a model where consumers are assumed to have deep habits. Habits are deep in the sense that they apply to individual consumption goods instead of aggregate consumption. This alters the NKPC in a fundamental manner as it introduces expected and contemporaneous consumption growth as well as the expected marginal value of future demand as additional driving forces for inflation dynamics. We construct the driving process in the deep habits NKPC by using the model's optimality conditions to impute time series for unobservable variables. The resulting series is considerably more volatile than unit labor cost. General Methods of Moments (GMM) estimation of the NKPC shows an improved fit and a much lower degree of indexation than in the standard NKPC. Our analysis also reveals that the crucial parameters for the performance of the deep habit NKPC are the habit parameter and the substitution elasticity between differentiated products. The results are broadly robust to alternative specifications.
AUTHORS: Lubik, Thomas A.; Teo, Wing Leong
DATE: 2011

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