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Author:Shultz, Patrick 

Working Paper
Bond Flows and Liquidity: Do Foreigners Matter?

In their search for yield in the current low interest rate environment, many investors have turned to sovereign debt in emerging economies, which has raised concerns about risks to financial stability from these capital flows. To assess this risk, we study the effects of changes in the foreign-held share of Mexican sovereign bonds on their liquidity premiums. We find that recent increases in foreign holdings of these securities have played a significant role in driving up their liquidity premiums. Provided the higher compensation for bearing liquidity risk is commensurate with the chance of a ...
Working Paper Series , Paper 2019-8

Working Paper
Is There an On-the-Run Premium in TIPS?

In the U.S. Treasury market, the most recently issued, or so-called ?on-the-run,? security typically trades at a price above those of more seasoned but otherwise comparable securities. This difference is known as the on-the-run premium. In this paper, yield spreads between pairs of Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (TIPS) with identical maturities but of separate vintages are analyzed. Adjusting for differences in coupon rates and values of embedded deflation options, the results show a small, positive premium on recently issued TIPS - averaging between one and four basis points - that ...
Working Paper Series , Paper 2017-10

Journal Article
Do Foreign Funds Matter for Emerging Market Bond Liquidity?

Many investors have turned to emerging market bonds seeking higher returns in the current low interest rate environment. This raises a natural question about the potential for financial instability if investors choose to sell off those bonds quickly. Studying how changes in foreign holdings of Mexican government bonds known as bonos affected their liquidity premiums provides an assessment of the risks and benefits from foreign investment in an emerging economy. Results show that the larger foreign market share of Mexican sovereign bonds tends to increase their liquidity risk premium.
FRBSF Economic Letter

Journal Article
How Futures Trading Changed Bitcoin Prices

From Bitcoin?s inception in 2009 through mid-2017, its price remained under $4,000. In the second half of 2017, it climbed dramatically to nearly $20,000, but descended rapidly starting in mid-December. The peak price coincided with the introduction of bitcoin futures trading on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. The rapid run-up and subsequent fall in the price after the introduction of futures does not appear to be a coincidence. Rather, it is consistent with trading behavior that typically accompanies the introduction of futures markets for an asset.
FRBSF Economic Letter

Journal Article
Do All New Treasuries Trade at a Premium?

In the Treasury market, the most recently issued security typically trades at a higher price than more seasoned but otherwise comparable securities. The difference is known as the ?on-the-run? premium. This phenomenon opens the question of whether a similar premium exists for all Treasury bonds. Examining yield spreads between pairs of inflation-protected securities, known as TIPS, that have identical maturities but different issue dates suggests that this is not the case: There is no on-the-run premium in the TIPS market at this time.
FRBSF Economic Letter

Journal Article
Has the Dollar Become More Sensitive to Interest Rates?

Interest rates in the United States have diverged from the rates of other countries over the past few years. Some commentators have voiced concerns that, as a result, exchange rates might be more sensitive to unanticipated changes in U.S. interest rates now than they were historically. However, an examination of market-based measures of policy expectations finds no convincing evidence that the U.S. dollar has become more sensitive since 2014.
FRBSF Economic Letter

Journal Article
China's Exchange Rate Policies and U.S. Financial Markets

Exchange rate stabilization or currency ?pegs? are among the most prevalent interventions in international financial markets. Removing a peg to a safer currency can make the home currency more risky and less attractive to investors. When a country with market influence removes its peg from a safer country, the risk associated with holding either currency can be affected. Analyzing the effects of a scenario that changes a peg of the renminbi from the U.S. dollar to a basket of currencies suggests that China?s interest rates increase while U.S. interest rates decrease.
FRBSF Economic Letter

Journal Article
Valuation Ratios for Households and Businesses

Current valuation ratios for U.S. equities and household net worth are high relative to historical benchmarks. The cyclically adjusted price-to-earnings ratio reached its third highest level on record recently, and the ratio of household net worth to disposable income, which includes a broad set of household assets, stands at a record high. Such extreme values of these ratios have historically been followed by reversions toward their long-run averages. However, other current factors, such as low interest rates, caution against bearish forecasts.
FRBSF Economic Letter

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