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Author:Sanches, Daniel R. 

Working Paper
Banking panics and protracted recessions

This paper develops a dynamic model of bank liquidity provision to characterize the ex post efficient policy response to a banking panic and study its implications for the behavior of output in the aftermath of a panic. It is shown that the trajectory of real output following a panic episode crucially depends on the cost of converting long-term assets into liquid funds. For small values of this liquidation cost, the recession associated with a banking panic is protracted. For intermediate values, the recession is more severe but short lived. For relatively large values, the contemporaneous ...
Working Papers , Paper 15-39

Working Paper
A dynamic model of unsecured credit

The author studies the terms of credit in a competitive market in which sellers (lenders) are willing to repeatedly finance the purchases of buyers (borrowers) by engaging in a credit relationship. The key frictions are: (i) the lender is unable to observe the borrower's ability to repay a loan; (ii) the borrower cannot commit to any long-term contract; (iii) it is costly for the lender to contact a borrower and to walk away from a contract; and (iv) transactions within each credit relationship are not publicly observable. The lender's optimal contract has two key properties: delayed ...
Working Papers , Paper 11-2

Journal Article
New Moneys in the Digital Era

The history of money helps explain the recent turmoil in cryptocurrencies.
Economic Insights , Volume 8 , Issue 2 , Pages 2-10

Journal Article
Shadow banking and the crisis of 2007-08

In recent decades, institutions that function much like traditional banks have grown outside regulatory oversight. Yet, as Daniel Sanches explains, these so-called shadow banks are as vulnerable to runs as regular banks. Because banking crises can inflict lasting economic harm, economists are interested in tracing how the panic ensued in the shadow system.
Business Review , Issue Q2 , Pages 7-14

Working Paper
Price-Level Determination Under the Gold Standard

We present a micro-founded monetary model of a small open economy to examine the behavior of money, prices, and output under the gold standard. In particular, we formally analyze Hume’s celebrated price-specie flow mechanism. Our framework incorporates the influence of international trade on the money supply in the Home country through gold flows. In the short run, a positive correlation exists between the quantity of money and the price level. Additionally, we demonstrate that money is non-neutral during the transition to the steady state, which has implications for welfare. While the gold ...
Working Papers , Paper 24-06

Journal Article
Bitcoin vs. the Buck: Is Currency Competition a Good Thing?

Ever since the U.S. established a single currency in the 19th century, the idea of private money has evoked panics and bank failures. In the cryptocurrency era, can the dollar stay sound?
Economic Insights , Volume 3 , Issue 2 , Pages 9-14

Working Paper
Private liquidity and banking regulation

The authors show that the regulation of bank lending practices is necessary for the optimal provision of private liquidity. In an environment in which bankers cannot commit to repay their creditors, the authors show that neither an unregulated banking system nor narrow banking can provide the socially efficient amount of liquidity. If the bankers provided such an amount, then they would prefer to default on their liabilities. The authors show that a regulation that increases the value of the banking sector?s assets (e.g., by limiting competition in bank lending) will mitigate the commitment ...
Working Papers , Paper 12-11

Working Paper
On the inherent instability of private money

A primary concern in monetary economics is whether a purely private monetary regime is consistent with macroeconomic stability. I show that a competitive regime is inherently unstable due to the properties of endogenously determined limits on private money creation. Precisely, there is a continuum of equilibria characterized by a self-fulfilling collapse of the value of private money and a persistent decline in the demand for money. I associate these equilibrium allocations with self-fulfilling banking crises. It is possible to formulate a fiscal intervention that results in the global ...
Working Papers , Paper 15-18

Working Paper
Private money and banking regulation

We show that a competitive banking system is inconsistent with an optimum quantity of private money. Because bankers cannot commit to their promises and the composition of their assets is not publicly observable, a positive franchise value is required to induce the full convertibility of bank liabilities. Under perfect competition, a positive franchise value can be obtained only if the return on bank liabilities is sufficiently low, which imposes a cost on those who hold these liabilities for transaction purposes. If the banking system is monopolistic, then an efficient allocation is ...
Working Papers , Paper 15-19

Working Paper
Pairwise credit and the initial cost of lending

The author studies the terms of credit in a competitive market in which sellers are willing to repeatedly finance the purchases of buyers by extending direct credit. Lenders (sellers) can commit to deliver any long-term credit contract that does not result in a payoff that is lower than that associated with autarky, while borrowers (buyers) cannot commit to any contract. A borrower's ability to repay a loan is privately observable. As a result, the terms of credit within an enduring relationship change over time, according to the history of trades. Two borrowers are treated differently by the ...
Working Papers , Paper 10-23

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