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The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Business Expectations
We document and evaluate how businesses are reacting to the COVID-19 crisis through August 2020. First, on net, firms see the shock (thus far) largely as a demand rather than supply shock. A greater share of firms reports significant or severe disruption to sales activity than to supply chains. We compare these measures of disruption to their expected changes in selling prices and find that, even for firms that report supply chain disruption, they expect to lower near-term selling prices on average. We also show that firms are engaging in wage cuts and expect to trim wages further before the ...
U.S. Consumers' Use of Personal Checks: Evidence from a Diary Survey
This paper presents a snapshot of U.S. consumers’ use of paper checks in 2017 and 2018, combining data from the 2017and 2018 Diaries of Consumer Payment Choice.Other data sources have tracked the decline in the use of paper checks since 2000. This report adds to that data by delving into the characteristics of 1,600 individual transactions—in particular, dollar amount, payee, and payer—made by a representative sample of U.S. consumers using checks. Among the findings:•Consumers used checks for 7 percent of transactions overall in 2017 and 2018 and wrote about three checks a ...
How People Pay Each Other: Data, Theory, and Calibrations
Using a representative sample of the U.S. adult population, we analyze which payment methods consumers use to pay other consumers (p2p) and how these choices depend on transaction and demographic characteristics. We additionally construct a random matching model of consumers with diverse preferences over the use of different payment methods for p2p payments. The random matching model is calibrated to the share of p2p payments made with cash, paper check, and electronic technologies observed from 2015 to 2019. We find about two thirds of consumers have a first p2p payment preference of cash. ...