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The Impact of Covid-19 Related Policy Responses on Municipal Debt Markets
Municipal (muni) bonds are an important source of funding for state and local governments. During the Covid-19 pandemic, muni debt markets became severely distressed. In response, the Federal Reserve established the Municipal Liquidity Facility (MLF). Meanwhile, Congress enacted extensive fiscal measures that included direct aid to cities and states. To understand whether and how these policies worked, we employ a state-level regression model to estimate the relative efficacy of monetary and fiscal policy interventions for the term structure of muni-Treasury yield spreads. We find that fiscal ...
UK Pension Market Stress in 2022 - Why It Happened and Implications for the U.S.
A steep increase in British sovereign yields and swap rates and an equally steep drop in the value of the British pound (GBP) in September 2022 put substantial liquidity pressures on United Kingdom pension funds. This repricing in risk assets was triggered by the UK chancellor’s mini-budget announcement on September 23, 2022, which led to reactions from market participants. The structure and investment strategies of pension funds made them particularly ill-prepared to deal with market turmoil.