Political and economic consequences of alternative privatization strategies
The different approaches to large-scale privatization in Hungary, Poland, and the Czech Republic imply somewhat different patterns of corporate governance--that is, ownership, monitoring, and control of firms. Corporate governance affects economic incentives within the firm, and therefore economic performance of the firm. Similarly, patterns of ownership implied by the programs affect the distribution of gains from reform. Privatizing the large enterprises will importantly influence resource allocation, employment, and output. Consequently, the patterns of corporate governance embodied in the ...
Protection and retaliation: changing the rules of the game
An examination of the macroeconomic, political, and institutional environment of the 1930s and the 1980s suggests a set of stylized facts associated with periods of trade tension and incidents of trade retaliation. Periods of macroeconomic stress precipitate changes in the conduct of and implementation of U.S. trade policy, which then can lead to escalating trade tension, protectionist measures, and perhaps retaliation. Macroeconomic stress, especially when linked to external events, decreases the political benefits of following a liberal trade policy and changes the economic consequences of ...
A framework for analyzing the process of financial innovation
The following note presents a framework for analyzing financial management techniques and financial product innovation. The framework attempts to illustrate how characteristics of the economic system and its participants motivate financing needs and encourage innovations in financing techniques. New sets of financial contracts are the joint product of (1) changes in technology and in the international macro environment of asset prices; (2) the interplay of individual market participant's existing financial exposures; and (3) the presence of fruitful cross-market arbitrage opportunities based ...
Fiscal implications of the transition from planned to market economy
The transition from a centrally planned to a market-based economic system should change fundamentally the roles of government and public enterprises in the East-Central European countries of Hungary, Poland, and the Czech and Slovak Federated Republic (CSFR). The size of government should diminish, and that of the private sector increase, as subsidies, which are difficult to justify at market prices, are phased out. Taxes in centrally planned economies tend to be highly distortionary relative to those in market economies, making a restructuring of the tax system desirable to improve ...
Prices, profit margins, and exchange rates
The U.S. external deficit: its causes and persistence
This paper presents an empirical analysis of the macroeconomic and microeconomic factors underlying the causes and persistence of the U.S. external deficit in the 1980s. The paper begins with a review of the extensive literature on this subject, and then outlines an analytical framework that synthesizes several different approaches taken in previous studies. The proximate causes of the deficit are assessed using a partial-equilibrium model of the U.S. current account. We find that the decline in U.S. price competitiveness associated with the appreciation of the dollar over the first half of ...
Determinants of Japanese direct investment in U.S. manufacturing industries
The rapid rise in Japanese owned assets in the United States and the substantial fall of the dollar against the yen naturally raises the question of whether there is a causal relationship between Japanese direct investment and the yen/dollar exchange rate. ; This paper contributes in two ways to the analysis of the direct investment-exchange rate link. First, it presents a hybrid model of direct investment which incorporates insights from both portfolio balance models and industrial-organization-based models of direct investment. Second, it tests and compares these three models of direct ...
Industry restructuring and export performance: evidence on the transition in Hungary
Robust and numerous small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) are a hallmark of the market economy and development of these firms is an integral part of the structural transformation of the economies of East-Central Europe (ECE). Data for Hungary on changes in the size distribution of firms and their importance for output and employment indicates that industry restructuring is taking place. One measure of the success of restructuring is export performance. That is, increased exports by those industries undergoing restructuring suggests that the process is creating firms that are successfully ...
U.S. international transaction in 1984