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Author:Lagos, Ricardo 

Working Paper
Liquidity in asset markets with search frictions
We develop a search-theoretic model of financial intermediation and use it to study how trading frictions affect the distribution of asset holdings, asset prices, efficiency and standard measures of liquidity. A distinctive feature of our theory is that it allows for unrestricted asset holdings, so market participants can accommodate trading frictions by adjusting their asset positions. We show that these individual responses of asset demands constitute a fundamental feature of illiquid markets: they are a key determinant of bid-ask spreads, trade volume and trading delays?all the dimensions of market liquidity that search-based theories seek to explain.
AUTHORS: Lagos, Ricardo; Rocheteau, Guillaume
DATE: 2008

Working Paper
Money and capital as competing media of exchange
We construct a model in which capital competes with fiat money as a medium of exchange, and establish conditions on fundamentals under which fiat money can be both valued and socially beneficial. When the socially efficient stock of capital is too low to provide the liquidity agents need, they overaccumulate productive assets to use as media of exchange. When this is the case, there exists a monetary equilibrium that dominates the nonmonetary one in terms of welfare. Under the Friedman rule, fiat money provides just enough liquidity so that agents choose to accumulate the same capital stock a social planner would.
AUTHORS: Lagos, Ricardo; Rocheteau, Guillaume
DATE: 2006

Working Paper
Crashes and recoveries in illiquid markets
We study the dynamics of liquidity provision by dealers during an asset market crash, described as a temporary negative shock to investors? aggregate asset demand. We consider a class of dynamic market settings where dealers can trade continuously with each other, while trading between dealers and investors is subject to delays and involves bargaining. We derive conditions on fundamentals, such as preferences, market structure and the characteristics of the market crash (e.g., severity, persistence) under which dealers provide liquidity to investors following the crash. We also characterize the conditions under which dealers? incentives to provide liquidity are consistent with market efficiency.
AUTHORS: Weill, Pierre-Olivier; Lagos, Ricardo; Rocheteau, Guillaume
DATE: 2007

Working Paper
Liquidity in asset markets with search frictions
We study how trading frictions in asset markets affect the distribution of asset holdings, asset prices, efficiency, and standard measures of liquidity. To this end, we analyze the equilibrium and optimal allocations of a search-theoretic model of financial intermediation similar to Duffie, Grleanu and Pedersen (2005). In contrast with the existing literature, the model we develop imposes no restrictions on asset holdings, so traders can accommodate frictions by varying their trading needs through changes in their asset positions. We find that this is a critical aspect of investor behavior in illiquid markets. A reduction in trading frictions leads to an increase in the dispersion of asset holdings and trade volume. Transaction costs and intermediaries? incentives to make markets are nonmonotonic in trade frictions. With the entry of dealers, these nonmonotonicities give rise to an externality in liquidity provision that can lead to multiple equilibria. Tight spreads are correlated with large volume and short trading delays across equilibria. From a normative standpoint we show that the asset allocation across investors and the number of dealers are socially inefficient.
AUTHORS: Lagos, Ricardo; Rocheteau, Guillaume
DATE: 2007

Working Paper
Search in asset markets: market structure, liquidity, and welfare
This paper investigates how market structure affects efficiency and several dimensions of liquidity in an asset market. To this end, we generalize the search-theoretic model of financial intermediation of Darrell Duffie et al. (2005) to allow for entry of dealers and unrestricted asset holdings.
AUTHORS: Lagos, Ricardo; Rocheteau, Guillaume
DATE: 2007

Working Paper
Inflation, output, and welfare
This paper studies the effects of anticipated inflation on aggregate output and welfare within a search-theoretic framework. We allow money-holders to choose the intensities with which they search for trading partners, so inflation affects the frequency of trade as well as the quantity of output produced in each trade. We consider the standard pricing mechanism for search models, i.e., ex-post bargaining, as well as a notion of competitive pricing. If prices are bargained over, the equilibrium is generically inefficient and an increase in inflation reduces buyers? search intensities, output, and welfare. If prices are posted and buyers can direct their search, search intensities are increasing with inflation for low inflation rates and decreasing for high inflation rates. The Friedman rule achieves the first best allocation and inflation always reduces welfare even though it can have a positive effect on output for low inflation rates.
AUTHORS: Lagos, Ricardo; Rocheteau, Guillaume
DATE: 2004

Working Paper
Search in asset markets
We investigate how trading frictions in asset markets affect portfolio choices, asset prices and efficiency. We generalize the search-theoretic model of financial intermediation of Duffie, Grleanu and Pedersen (2005) to allow for more general preferences and idiosyncratic shock structure, unrestricted portfolio choices, aggregate uncertainty and entry of dealers. With a fixed measure of dealers, we show that a steady-state equilibrium exists and is unique, and provide a condition on preferences under which a reduction in trading frictions leads to an increase in the price of the asset. We also analyze the effects of trading frictions on bid-ask spreads, trade volume and the volatility of asset prices, and find that the asset allocation is constrained-inefficient unless investors have all the bargaining power in bilateral negotiations with dealers. We show that the dealers? entry decision introduces a feedback that can give rise to multiple equilibria, and that free-entry equilibria are generically inefficient.
AUTHORS: Lagos, Ricardo; Rocheteau, Guillaume
DATE: 2006

Working Paper
Dynamics, cycles and sunspot equilibria in \\"genuinely dynamic, fundamentally disaggregative\\" models of money
This paper pursues a line of Cass and Shell, who advocate monetary models that are "genuinely dynamic and fundamentally disaggregative" and that incorporate "diversity among households and variety among commodities." Recent search-theoretic models fit this description. The authors show that, like overlapping generations models, search models generate interesting dynamic equilibria, including cycles, chaos, and sunspot equilibria. This helps explain how alternative models are related and lends support to the notion that endogenous dynamics and uncertainty matter, perhaps especially in monetary economies. Th authors also suggest that such equilibria in search models may be more empirically relevant than in some other models.
AUTHORS: Lagos, Ricardo; Wright, Randall
DATE: 2002

Working Paper
A unified framework for monetary theory and policy analysis
Search-theoretic models of monetary exchange are based on explicit descriptions of the frictions that make money essential. However, tractable versions usually have strong assumptions that make them ill suited for discussing some policy questions, especially those concerning changes in the money supply. Hence, most policy analysis uses reduced-form models. The authors propose a framework, designed to help bridge this gap, that is based explicitly on microeconomic frictions, but allows for interesting macroeconomic policy analyses. At the same time, the model is analytically tractable and amenable to quantitative analysis.
AUTHORS: Lagos, Ricardo; Wright, Randall
DATE: 2002

Journal Article
Asset prices, liquidity, and monetary policy in the search theory of money
The author presents a search-based model in which money coexists with equity shares on a risky aggregate endowment. Agents can use equity as a means of payment, so shocks to equity prices translate into aggregate liquidity shocks that disrupt the mechanism of exchange. The author characterizes a family of optimal monetary policies and finds that the resulting equity prices are independent of monetary considerations. The author also studies monetary policies that target a constant, but nonzero, nominal interest rate and finds that to the extent that a financial asset is valued as a means to facilitate transactions, the asset's real rate of return will include a liquidity return that depends on monetary considerations. Through this liquidity channel, persistent deviations from an optimal monetary policy can cause the real prices of assets that can be used to relax trading constraints to exhibit persistent deviations from their fundamental values.
AUTHORS: Lagos, Ricardo
DATE: 2010-05

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