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Author:Kopcke, Richard W. 

Journal Article
A panel study of investment: sales, cash flow, the cost of capital, and leverage

This article compares the investment spending for each of 396 corporations during the late 1980s and early 1990s to projections of their spending derived from several basic models of investment. According to these models, capital spending, on average, adheres closely to output, profits, and the cost of capital. The pattern of average forecast errors derived from the statistical models does not correspond very closely to measures of indebtedness, liquidity, size, or type of business. It is not surprising that these variables should influence capital spending so little, once the general ...
New England Economic Review , Issue Jan , Pages 9-30

Conference Paper
Are the distinctions between debt and equity disappearing? An overview

Conference Series ; [Proceedings] , Volume 33 , Pages 1-11

Conference Paper
Insurance companies as financial intermediaries: risk and return

Conference Series ; [Proceedings] , Volume 35 , Pages 19-72

Journal Article
Safety and soundness of financial intermediaries: capital requirements, deposit insurance, and monetary policy

More than two-thirds of the $25 trillion of financial assets held in the United States is managed on behalf of investors by financial intermediaries, ranging from trusts, mutual funds, and mortgage pools to insurance companies, pension funds, and banks. Because of their importance, governments have long regulated the activities of these intermediaries to ensure sound financial markets, a foundation of secure economic development. Currently, regulators both here and abroad are considering reforms that not only might foster more efficient domestic financial markets, but also might prepare the ...
New England Economic Review , Issue Nov , Pages 37-65

Journal Article
Has the stock market become too narrow?

The price of equity has soared during the past five years, stoking concerns that stocks' prices might have risen too far, too fast. These concerns became more pressing as the values of equities rose much more rapidly than earnings during 1998 and early 1999, lifting stocks' prices to record highs relative to their earnings. Although many indexes of stocks' prices continued to rise sharply in 1998 and 1999, fewer stocks contributed to this performance. The market became more narrow as the running count of stocks whose prices were rising fell behind that for stocks whose prices were dropping. ; ...
New England Economic Review , Issue Nov , Pages 31-43

Journal Article
The capitalization and portfolio risk of insurance companies

The strategies of financial intermediaries in the United States presumed a stability of interest rates that began to break down in the late 1960s. Not only did rising interest rates during the past two decades tend to depress the value of the assets of all intermediaries, they also fostered competition among intermediaries as all sought new opportunities for profit. In order to cope, many financial institutions assumed new bets by "reaching" for riskier assets offering higher yields or by operating with less capital per dollar of assets. To varying degrees, many insurance companies have ...
New England Economic Review , Issue Jul , Pages 43-57

Journal Article
Risk and the capital of insurance companies

Insurance companies, like other financial institutions, have been evolving from specialized businesses to enterprises offering a variety of financial services. Rising interest rates impelled this evolution during much of the past three decades as most insurers tried to remain competitive. However, as insurers' profit margins subsided and they attracted new business, their assets generally grew more rapidly than their capital. To maintain the safety and soundness of insurance companies, regulators increasingly are adopting risk-based capital requirements instead of rules that limit insurers' ...
New England Economic Review , Issue Jul , Pages 27-42

Working Paper
Economic rents, the demand for capital, and financial structure

The correspondence between the demand for capital and various measures of the return on assets, the cost of capital, and Tobin?s q often is tenuous (Abel and Blanchard 1986; Hayashi 1982), at times even perverse. Of a variety of possible explanations, this paper considers the consequences of allowing for declining returns to capital--a declining marginal efficiency of capital schedule (MEC). This modification not only relaxes the connection between the demand for capital and many of its traditional determinants, but it also may introduce a connection among the value of the firm, its financial ...
Working Papers , Paper 91-8

Journal Article
Stock prices and the equity premium during the recent bull and bear markets

After the sharp run-up in stock prices during the bull market of the late 1990s and their subsequent collapse in 20012002, the prices of equities as measured by the S&P 500 are once again uncommonly high relative to companies current and prospective earnings, causing some to question whether they are too high relative to the underlying value of the companies they represent. ; This paper compares the recent performance of the equities constituting the S&P 500 with their performance since the 1940s and then extends the familiar Gordon model of equity pricing to examine the contributions of the ...
New England Economic Review

Journal Article
The determinants of business investment: has capital spending been surprisingly low?

Many are worried that since 1980 capital investment by businesses has been lower than expected. Unusual circumstances, such as changes in savings patterns or in business leverage, a credit crunch, or widespread adoption of a shorter-term outlook, have been suggested as culprits. To see whether investment spending has indeed departed from its traditional determinants, this article compares capital spending during the 1980s and early 1990s with projections of spending derived from historical relationships between investment and various measures of economic activity. ; The results show that ...
New England Economic Review , Issue Jan , Pages 3-31

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