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Author:Judson, Ruth 

Working Paper
Inflation, Volatility, and Growth

This paper re-examines the relationship between inflation, inflation volatility and growth using cross-country panel data for the past 30 years. With regard to the level of inflation, we find that in contrast to current findings which are based on cross-sectional time-average regression comparisons, exploiting the time dimension of the data reveals a strong negative correlation between inflation and income growth for all but very low inflation countries. To examine the role of inflation uncertainty on growth, we use intra-year inflation data to construct an annual measure of inflation ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 1996-19

Working Paper
Estimating Dynamic Panel Data Models: A Practical Guide for Macroeconomists

We use a Monte Carlo approach to investigate the performance of several different methods designed to reduce the bias of the estimated coefficients for dynamic panel data models estimated with the longer, narrower panels typical of macro data. We find that the bias of the least squares dummy variable approach can be significant, even when the time dimension of the panel is as large as 30. For panels with small time dimensions, we find a corrected least squares dummy variable estimator to be the best choice. However, as the time dimension of the panel increases, the computationally simpler ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 1997-03

Working Paper
Do Low Human Capital Coefficients Make Sense? A Puzzle and Some Answers

I develop a new measure of human capital stock that has two advantages over previous measures. First, it allows for varying costs of education across time, countries, and level of education. Second, the unit of measurement is dollars, which allows comparison of human capital stocks with other macro- economic variables, including national income (GDP) and physical capital stocks. Using cross-country panel regression analysis, I find that human capital accumulation accounts for a relatively small (about ten percent) of per-capita GDP growth. I further find that, unlike physical capital, the ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 1996-13

Discussion Paper
Estimating the volume of counterfeit U.S. currency in circulation worldwide: data and extrapolation

The incidence of currency counterfeiting and the possible total stock of counterfeits in circulation are popular topics of speculation and discussion in the press and are of substantial practical interest to the U.S. Treasury and the U.S. Secret Service. This paper assembles data from Federal Reserve and U.S. Secret Service sources and presents a range of estimates for the number of counterfeits in circulation. In addition, the paper presents figures on counterfeit passing activity by denomination, location, and method of production. The paper has two main conclusions: first, the stock of ...
Policy Discussion Paper Series , Paper PDP-2010-02

Journal Article
Improving the measurement of cross-border securities holdings: the Treasury International Capital SLT

In the wake of the financial crisis, growing interest in improving the measurement of cross-border securities positions and flows spurred the introduction of a new Treasury International Capital (TIC) reporting form, the TIC Security Long Term (SLT). This article reviews the existing structure of TIC cross-border position and flow data, the benefits that the new SLT can provide, and the incoming information from the first two reporting months of SLT data, September and December 2011. While some patterns and characteristics of the SLT data will become clear only after more data have ...
Federal Reserve Bulletin , Volume 98 , Issue May , Pages 1-28

Working Paper
International Dollar Flows

Using confidential Federal Reserve data, we study the factors driving U.S. banknote flows between the United States and other countries. These flows are a significant component of capital flows in emerging market economies, where physical U.S. currency functions as a safe asset and precautionary demand for U.S. banknotes is a form of flight to quality. Prior to the global financial crisis, country-specific factors, including local economic uncertainty, largely explain the volume and heterogeneity of the flows. Since the crisis, global factors, particularly, global economic uncertainty, ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 1144

Working Paper
Crisis and calm: Demand for U.S. currency at home and abroad from the fall of the Berlin Wall to 2011

U.S. currency has long been a desirable store of value and medium of exchange in times and places where local currency or bank deposits are inferior in one or more respects. Indeed, as noted in earlier work, a substantial share of U.S. currency circulates outside the United States. Although precise measurements of stocks and flows of U.S. currency outside the United States are not available, a variety of data sources and methods have been developed to provide estimates. ; This paper reviews the raw data available for measuring international banknote flows and presents updates on indirect ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 1058

Working Paper
Estimating U.S. Cross-Border Securities Positions: New Data and New Methods

The role of capital flows in the buildup to the global financial crisis and the potential vulnerabilities posed by capital flows to emerging market economies highlight the importance of reliable and timely measures of cross-border investment activity to better monitor developments as they unfold. We present new monthly estimates of U.S. cross-border securities investment, combining information from detailed annual Treasury International Capital (TIC) surveys with new information from the TIC form SLT. We also show how changes in the new monthly data can be decomposed into flows, estimated ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 1113

Working Paper
Inflation, volatility and growth

This paper re-examines the relationship between inflation, inflation volatility and growth using cross-country panel data for the past 30 years. With regard to the level of inflation, we find that in contrast to current findings which are based on cross-sectional time-average regression comparisons, exploiting the time dimension of the data reveals a strong negative correlation between inflation and income growth for all but very low inflation countries. To examine the role of inflation uncertainty on growth, we use intra-year inflation data to construct an annual measure of inflation ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 96-19

Working Paper
Sticky deposit rates

We examine the dynamics of eleven different deposit rates for a panel of over 2,500 branches of about 900 depository institutions observed weekly over ten years. We replicate previous work showing that rates are downwards-flexible and upwards-sticky, and show that a simple menu cost model can generate this behavior. The degree of asymmetric rigidity varies substantially by deposit type, bank size, and across branches of the same bank. In the absence of such stickiness, depositors would have received as much as $100 billion more in interest per year during periods when market rates were ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2013-80

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