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Author:Gelain, Paolo 

Working Paper
A DSGE Model Including Trend Information and Regime Switching at the ZLB

This paper outlines the dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model developed at the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland as part of the suite of models used for forecasting and policy analysis by Cleveland Fed researchers, which we have nicknamed CLEMENTINE (CLeveland Equilibrium ModEl iNcluding Trend INformation and the Effective lower bound). This document adopts a practitioner's guide approach, detailing the construction of the model and offering practical guidance on its use as a policy tool designed to support decision-making through forecasting exercises and policy counterfactuals.
Working Papers , Paper 23-35

Working Paper
Leaning Against the Credit Cycle

How should a central bank act to stabilize the debt-to-GDP ratio? We show how the persistent nature of household debt shapes the answer to this question. In environments where households repay mortgages gradually, surprise interest hikes only weakly influence household debt, and tend to increase debt-to-GDP in the short run while reducing it in the medium run. Interest rate rules with a positive weight on debt-to-GDP cause indeterminacy. Compared to inflation targeting, debt-to-GDP stabilization calls for a more expansionary policy when debt-to-GDP is high, so as to deflate the debt burden ...
Working Paper Series , Paper 2017-18

Working Paper
Multiperiod Loans, Occasionally Binding Constraints, and Monetary Policy: A Quantitative Evaluation

We study the implications of multiperiod mortgage loans for monetary policy, considering several realistic modifications?fixed interest rate contracts, a lower bound constraint on newly granted loans, and the possibility of the collateral constraint to become slack?to an otherwise standard DSGE model with housing and financial intermediaries. We estimate the model in its nonlinear form and argue that all these features are important to understand the evolution of mortgage debt during the recent US housing market boom and bust. We show how the nonlinearities associated with the two constraints ...
Working Papers , Paper 19-10

Working Paper
Explaining the Boom-Bust Cycle in the U.S. Housing Market: A Reverse-Engineering Approach

We use a simple quantitative asset pricing model to ?reverse-engineer? the sequences of stochastic shocks to housing demand and lending standards that are needed to exactly replicate the boom-bust patterns in U.S. household real estate value and mortgage debt over the period 1995 to 2012. Conditional on the observed paths for U.S. disposable income growth and the mortgage interest rate, we consider four different specifications of the model that vary according to the way that household expectations are formed (rational versus moving average forecast rules) and the maturity of the mortgage ...
Working Paper Series , Paper 2015-2

Working Paper
Output Gap, Monetary Policy Trade-offs, and Financial Frictions

This paper investigates how the presence of pervasive financial frictions and large financial shocks changes the optimal monetary policy prescriptions and the estimated dynamics in a New Keynesian model. We find that financial factors affect the optimal policy only to some extent. A policy of nominal stabilization (with a particular focus on targeting wage inflation) is still the optimal policy, although the central bank is now unable to fully stabilize economic activity around its potential level. In contrast, the presence of financial frictions and financial shocks crucially changes the ...
Working Papers , Paper 20-05

Working Paper
The US Banks’ Balance Sheet Transmission Channel of Oil Price Shocks

We document the existence of a quantitative relevant banks' balance-sheet transmission channel of oil price shocks by estimating a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with banking and oil sectors. The associated amplification mechanism implies that those shocks explain a non-negligible share of US GDP growth fluctuations, up to 17 percent, instead of 6 percent absent the banking sector. Also, they mitigated the severity of the Great Recession’s trough. GDP growth would have been 2.48 percentage points more negative in 2008Q4 without the beneficial effect of low oil prices. The ...
Working Papers , Paper 22-33

Working Paper
Monetary Policy with Judgment

We consider two approaches to incorporate judgment into DSGE models. First, Bayesian estimation indirectly imposes judgment via priors on model parameters, which are then mapped into a judgmental interest rate decision. Standard priors are shown to be associated with highly unrealistic judgmental decisions. Second, judgmental interest rate decisions are directly provided by the decision maker and incorporated into a formal statistical decision rule using frequentist procedures. When the observed interest rates are interpreted as judgmental decisions, they are found to be consistent with DSGE ...
Working Papers , Paper 20-14

Working Paper
House prices, credit growth, and excess volatility: implications for monetary and macroprudential policy

Progress on the question of whether policymakers should respond directly to financial variables requires a realistic economic model that captures the links between asset prices, credit expansion, and real economic activity. Standard DSGE models with fully-rational expectations have difficulty producing large swings in house prices and household debt that resemble the patterns observed in many developed countries over the past decade. We introduce excess volatility into an otherwise standard DSGE model by allowing a fraction of households to depart from fully-rational expectations. ...
Working Paper Series , Paper 2012-11

Journal Article
Understanding Post-Pandemic Surprises in Inflation and the Labor Market

Since the COVID-19 pandemic, the United States has experienced sharply rising then falling inflation alongside persistent labor market imbalances. This Economic Commentary interprets these macroeconomic dynamics, as represented by the Beveridge and Phillips curves, through the lens of a macroeconomic model. It uses the structure of the model to rationalize the debate about whether the US economy can expect a hard or soft landing. The model is surprised by the resiliency of the labor market as the US economy experienced disinflation. We suggest that the model’s limited ability to capture ...
Economic Commentary , Volume 2024 , Issue 11 , Pages 6

Working Paper
Oil Price Fluctuations and US Banks

We document a sizable effect of oil price fluctuations on US banking variables by estimating an SVAR with sign restrictions as in Baumeister and Hamilton (2019). We find that oil market shocks that lead to a contraction in world economic activity unambiguously lower the amount of bank credit to the US economy, tend to decrease US banks' net worth, and tend to increase the US credit spread. The effects can be strong and long-lasting, or more modest and short-lived, depending on the source of the oil price fluctuations. The effects are stronger for smaller and lower leveraged banks.
Working Papers , Paper 24-11



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