International payments imbalances in the 1980's: an overview
The soaring trade in \\"nontradables.\\"
In recent years international trade has flourished in a category heretofore considered largely nontradable. Services are being exchanged across national boundaries in unprecedented volumes, with growth rates exceeding those for trade in merchandise. In addition to cross-border trade, foreign direct investment and sales by foreign affiliates are also growing rapidly. The phenomenon has attracted growing attention both from impartial analysts and from government officials seeking to expand their countries' exports. ; This article examines the nature of this trade and considers which ...
Perspective on Bretton Woods
The United States in debt
After 1982 the international investment position of the United States dramatically shifted from one of sizable net creditor to much more sizable net debtor. As the U.S. deficit on current international transactions soared to record levels during the mid-1980s, some observers perceived a grave loss of U.S. competitiveness that was "deindustrializing" America. Others warned of an imminent international financial crisis. ; This article examines the growth of U.S. indebtedness to the rest of the world and its underlying causes, and considers the consequences and some proposed remedies. The ...
International payments imbalances in the 1980s: an overview
The decline of the oil cartel
International capital movements: how shocking are they?
International linkages of national capital markets have strengthened in recent years, as many nations have relaxed restrictions over their financial markets and as technical advances have speeded communications. While some controls over capital movements remain, the degree of integration is impressive--and has been for years, well before it became fashionable to speak of "globalization." This article examines the volatility of capital movements relative to national outputs for 11 industrial countries.> The author finds that the volatility of capital flows appears to be no greater now than ...
Europe in 1992