The price risk of options positions: measurement and capital requirements
This article evaluates supervisory approaches to the measurement and capital treatment of the price risk of options positions. The authors find that approximate value-at-risk rules tend to provide better estimates of potential losses than simple strategy-based rules. The value-at-risk rules are particularly effective when they adjust for nonlinear changes in options prices. The authors also consider the reporting burdens posed by the different approaches and the consistency of the rules with existing and proposed supervisory frameworks.
Consistent margin requirements: are they feasible?
Predicting U.S. recessions: financial variables as leading indicators
This article examines the performance of various financial variables as predictors of U.S. recessions. Series such as interest rates and spreads, stock prices, currencies, and monetary aggregates are evaluated individually and in comparison with other financial and non-financial indicators. The analysis focuses on out-of-sample performance from 1 to 8 quarters ahead. Results show that stock prices are useful with 1-3 quarter horizons, as are some well-known macroeconomic indicators. Beyond 1 quarter, however, the slope of the yield curve emerges as the clear individual choice and typically ...
A new measure of fit for equations with dichotomous dependent variables
The econometrics literature contains many alternative measures of goodness of fit, roughly analogous to R2, for use with equations with dichotomous dependent variables. There is, however, no consensus as to the measures' relative merits or about which ones should be reported in empirical work. This paper proposes a new measure that possesses several useful properties that the other measures lack. The new measure may be interpreted intuitively in a similar way to R2 in the linear regression context.
Why do interest rates predict macro outcomes?: A unified theory of inflation, output, interest and policy
Several articles published in the 1990s have identified empirical relationships between the term structure of real and nominal interest rates, on one hand, and future real output and inflation, on the other. Among these are Mishkin (1990a), Estrella and Hardouvelis (1991), Bernanke and Blinder (1992) and Fuhrer and Moore (1995). These articles demonstrate the existence of empirical predictive relationships, but the underlying economic reasons for the empirical regularities remain at least partly as puzzles. This paper presents a theoretical rational expectations model that shows how monetary ...
Aggregate supply and demand shocks: a natural rate approach.
There is wide agreement that the dynamics of inflation and unemployment are influenced by supply and demand shocks, such as oil price and monetary policy surprises, and by systematic factors such as overlapping contracts. There is less agreement about the relative importance of those determinants. The natural rate model of this paper uses a structural VAR approach to decompose movements in U.S. postwar unemployment and inflation into three orthogonal components. These components correspond, respectively, to systematic or predictable changes, supply shocks, and demand shocks. Orthogonality ...
Taylor, Black and Scholes: series approximations and risk management pitfalls
Risk managers make frequent use of finite Taylor approximations to option pricing formulas, particularly of first and second order (delta and gamma). This paper shows that for a plausible range of parameter values, the Taylor series for the Black-Scholes formula diverges. Using a numerical technique developed in the paper, it is also shown that even when the series converges, finite approximations of very large order are generally necessary to achieve acceptable levels of accuracy. Implications for risk management and stress testing are discussed.
The term structure of interest rates and its role in monetary policy for the European Central Bank
This paper examines the relationship of the term structure of interest rates to monetary policy instruments and to subsequent real activity and inflation in both Europe and the United States. The results show that monetary policy is an important determinant of the term structure spread, but is unlikely to be the only determinant. In addition, there is significant predictive power for both real activity and inflation. The yield curve is thus a simple and accurate measure that should be viewed as one piece of useful information which, along with other information, can be used to help guide ...