Theories of loan commitments: a literature review
A loan commitment is an agreement by which a bank promises to lend to a customer at prespecified terms while retaining the right to renege on its promise if the borrower's creditworthiness deteriorates. The contract also specifies the various fees that must be paid over the life of the commitment. Loan commitments are widely used in the economy. As their use has spread, a rich literature has evolved to explain why they exist, how they are priced, and how they affect the risk of the bank and the deposit insurer. This article summarizes what we have learned on these issues. Its main insight is ...
Systemic banking crises
Systemic banking crises can have devastating effects on the economies of developing or industrialized countries. This Policy Discussion Paper reviews the factors that weaken banking systems and make them more susceptible to crises.
On the resolution of financial crises: the Swedish experience
Sweden was one of the Scandinavian countries experiencing a severe financial crisis In the late 1980s and early 1990s. I review the policy choices and external factors that pushed the countrys financial system over the edge and then examine the steps the government took to make its resolution of the crisis one of the most successful in the past 30 years.
Do public pension obligations affect state funding costs?
States? unfunded pension obligations to their current and retired employees have exploded in recent years to levels that are estimated to be between $750 billion and $4.4 trillion. In theory, this massive debt should have implications for states? ability to meet their financial obligations and a measurable impact on funding costs. Yet, we find no evidence that municipal bond markets are pricing the risks to states? fiscal health arising from these large obligations.
Beyond the transaction: depository institutions and reduced mortgage default for low-income homebuyers
We evaluate the effects of the lending institution and soft information on mortgage loan performance for low-income homebuyers. We find that even after controlling for bank selection, those who receive a loan from a local bank are significantly less likely to become delinquent or default than other bank or nonbank borrowers, suggesting an information effect. These effects are most pronounced for higher-risk borrowers, who likely benefit more from informational advantages of local banks. These findings support previous research on small business lending and provide additional explanation for ...
Banking relationships and sell-side research
This paper examines disclosures by sell-side analysts when their institution has a lending relationship with the firms being covered. Lending-affiliated analysts? earnings forecasts are found to be more accurate relative to forecasts by other analysts but this differential accuracy manifests itself only after the advent of the loan. Despite this increased earnings forecast accuracy, lending-affiliated analysts exhibit undue optimism in their brokerage recommendations and forecasts of long term growth. The optimism exists both before and after the lending commences. The evidence suggests that ...
The impact of recovery efforts on residential vacancies
Legislation aimed at stabilizing housing markets since the recession has focused on providing funding to acquire and remediate foreclosed and abandoned homes or providing financial assistance and incentives to purchase homes. Cuyahoga County has received over $100 million in such funds since 2008. We investigate the impact of these funds on vacancy rates. We examine neighborhoods in Cuyahoga County where National Stabilization Program dollars were spent and find that the program helped reduce vacancies in neighborhoods where properties were primarily purchased for consumption purposes.
Foreclosures in Ohio: does lender type matter?
Whether mortgages are originated mostly by depository institutions regulated by the Federal agencies or by less-regulated lenders does not seem to affect the foreclosure filing rate in Ohio?s counties. What seems to matter is whether the lenders have a physical presence in the market, in which case, foreclosure rates are lower.
Homeownership for the long run: an analysis of homeowner subsidies
This paper examines the impact of interest-rate and down-payment subsidies on default rates and losses given default, and finds that down-payment subsidies create successful homeowners at a lower cost than interest-rate subsidies.
Market- vs. bank-based financial systems: do investor rights really matter?
Why are common-law countries market-dominated and civil-law countries bank-dominated when either financial structure can promote economic growth? This paper provides an explanation tied to legal traditions. Civil-law courts have been less effective in resolving conflicts than common-law courts because civil-law judges traditionally refrain from interpreting the codes and creating new rules. Banks can induce borrowers to honor their obligations by threatening to withhold services that only banks can provide.