Scale economies and geographic diversification as forces driving community bank mergers
Mergers of community banks across economic market areas potentially reduce both idiosyncratic and local market risk. Idiosyncratic risk may be reduced because the larger post merger bank has a larger customer base. Negative credit and liquidity shocks from individual customers would have smaller effects on the portfolio of the merged entity than on the individual community banks involved in the merger. Geographic dispersion of banking activities across economic market areas may reduce local market risk because an adverse economic development that is unique to one market area will not affect a ...
Recent developments in wholesale payments systems
Wholesale payments and settlement systems in G-10 countries have undergone significant change in recent years. Notably, central banks have sought to increase the safety and reliability of these systems. In this article, William R. Emmons describes two approaches that have been pursued. Significant progress has been achieved in strengthening (or "securing") many existing payments system arrangements based on net settlement. In addition, many new gross settlement systems have been created, and existing ones have been improved. The article also explores why private-sector financial ...
College Inadvertently Increases Racial and Ethnic Disparity in Income and Wealth
Important new research finds that ?colleges successfully ?level the playing field? across students with different socioeconomic backgrounds,? which the researchers approximated with family income. However, this research does not consider an individual?s race or ethnicity as a predictor of success.
Bank competition and concentration: do credit unions matter?
One interesting aspect of the financial services industry is that for-profit institutions, such as commercial banks, compete directly with not-for-profit financial intermediaries, such as credit unions. In this article, William R. Emmons and Frank A. Schmid analyze the competition between banks and credit unions. Using annual county-level data on banking-market concentration and household participation rates at occupational credit unions for the period between 1989 and 1996, the authors find empirical evidence of two-way competitive interactions between banks and credit unions.
Mortgage borrowing: the boom and bust
Also titled as "Mortgage Boom and Bust Affected Different Age Groups Differently" in PDF format.
The impact of alternative bank monitoring policies on corporate investment and financing decisions
Much of the benefit from bank loans is generated by the specialized monitoring and information gathering role provided by financial institutions, including their role in facilitating the reorganization of firms experiencing financial distress. Despite these numerous benefits, it is somewhat surprising that aggregate trends suggest that the corporate sector has decreased its reliance on bank loans. We model the relationship between alternative bank monitoring policies and corporate investment and financing decisions. Rather than taking the monitoring characteristics of the bank as fixed, we ...
Corporate governance and corporate performance
National corporate-governance traditions are distinctive, deeply rooted, and difficult to change. Recent research points to a country's legal traditions and its stage of economic development as important determinants of corporate-governance institutions. Common-law countries tend to provide more explicit investor protections than civil-law countries. Richer countries tend to enforce corporate law more strictly. Broader and deeper financial markets emerge in the presence of strong investor protections, fostering more outside financing and better corporate financial performance. ...
The Middle Class May Be Under More Pressure Than You Think
Membership structure, competition, and occupational credit union deposit rates
How do occupational credit unions set deposit rates? This article shows that the answer to this question will depend on (i) who actually makes business decisions in credit unions (who is in control), and (ii) whether local deposit market competition is important. It is not obvious who controls occupational credit unions. If the sponsor (the employer) is in control, then loans and deposits are priced to maximize the surplus received by all of the credit union?s current and potential members (those eligible to join). If members are in control, then a group of members with a majority can ...