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Author:Ding, Lei 

Discussion Paper
Effects of the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) on Small Business Lending

This study provides new evidence on the effectiveness of the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) on small business lending by focusing on a sample of neighborhoods with changed CRA eligibility status across the country because of an exogenous policy shock in 2013. The results of difference-in-differences analysis provide consistent evidence that the CRA promotes small business lending, especially in terms of number of loan originations, in lower-income neighborhoods. The generally positive effects of the CRA are sensitive to the types of CRA treatment. Losing CRA eligibility status has a ...
Community Affairs Discussion Paper , Paper 18-1

Journal Article
Federal Reserve Study Finds Evidence of Significant Impact of the Community Reinvestment Act

The Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) of 1977 incentivizes depository institutions to meet the credit needs of low- and moderate-income (LMI) people and neighborhoods. Federal regulators periodically examine CRA-regulated depository institutions? (banks, hereafter)1 performance in lending and financial services. Banks? CRA ratings are considered when regulators approve bank mergers, acquisitions, and branch openings
Cascade , Volume 2

Working Paper
“Don't Know What You Got Till It’s Gone” — The Effects of the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) on Mortgage Lending in the Philadelphia Market

The Community Reinvestment Act (CRA), enacted in 1977, has served as an important tool to foster access to financial services for lower-income communities across the country. This study provides new evidence on the effectiveness of CRA on mortgage lending by focusing on a large number of neighborhoods that became eligible and ineligible for CRA credit in the Philadelphia market because of an exogenous policy shock in 2014. The CRA effects are more evident when a lower-income neighborhood loses its CRA coverage, which leads to a 10 percent or more decrease in purchase originations by ...
Working Papers , Paper 17-15

Working Paper
BORROWER CREDIT ACCESS AND CREDIT PERFORMANCE AFTER LOAN MODIFICATIONS

While the preventive effect of loan modifications on mortgage default has been well-documented, evidence on the broad consequences of modifications has been fairly limited. Based on two unique loan-level data sets with borrower credit profiles, this study reports novel empirical evidence on how homeowners manage their credit before and after receiving modifications. The paper has several main findings. First, loan modifications improve borrowers? overall credit standing and access to credit. Modifications that provide principal reduction, rate reduction, or greater payment relief, as well as ...
Working Papers , Paper 16-26

Working Paper
Effects of Gentrification on Homeowners: Evidence from a Natural Experiment

A major overhaul of the property tax system in 2013 in the city of Philadelphia has generated significant variations in the amount of property taxes across properties. This exogenous policy shock provides a unique opportunity to identify the causal effects of gentrification, which is often accompanied by increased property values, on homeowners’ tax payment behavior and residential mobility. The analysis, based on a difference-in-differences framework, suggests that gentrification leads to a higher risk of delinquency on homeowners’ tax bills on average, but there was no sign of a ...
Working Papers , Paper 20-16

Report
Supporting Philadelphia’s Black Homeowners in the Aftermath of the COVID-19 Crisis

Homeownership remains an important means of building wealth in the United States.2 Purchasing a home early in adulthood can also lead to a virtuous cycle of accumulation by enabling homeowners to borrow against the value of their home to finance investments in higher education, entrepreneurship, and additional asset acquisition that, in turn, can boost lifetime earnings and capital gains.
Consumer Finance Institute Research Briefs and Special Reports

Working Paper
The Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) and Bank Branching Patterns

This paper examines the relationship between the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) and bank branching patterns, measured by the risk of branch closure and the net loss of branches at the neighborhood level, in the aftermath of Great Recession. Between 2009 and 2017, there was a larger decline in the number of bank branches in lower-income neighborhoods than in more affluent ones, raising concerns about access to mainstream financial services. However, once we control for supply and demand factors that influence bank branching decisions, we find generally consistent evidence that the CRA is ...
Working Papers , Paper 19-36

Discussion Paper
The Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) and Bank Branching Patterns

This paper examines the relationship between the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) and bank branching patterns, measured by the risk of branch closure and the net loss of branches at the neighborhood level, in the aftermath of Great Recession. Between 2009 and 2017, there was a larger decline in the number of bank branches in lower-income neighborhoods than in more affluent ones, raising concerns about access to mainstream financial services. However, once we control for supply and demand factors that influence bank branching decisions, we find generally consistent evidence that the CRA is ...
Community Affairs Discussion Paper , Paper 19-1

Discussion Paper
“Forced Automation” by COVID-19? Early Trends from Current Population Survey Data

This empirical study evaluates whether COVID-19 and the threat of future pandemics has expedited the process of automation in the U.S. The results suggest that the pandemic displaced more workers in automatable occupations, putting them at a greater risk of being permanently automated. The automatable jobs that are more vulnerable to the pandemic include jobs that do not permit remote work, have a high risk of COVID-19 transmission, or are in the most affected sectors. While most of the job losses during the pandemic are expected to be temporary, a replication of the analysis for the Great ...
Community Affairs Discussion Paper

Working Paper
The impact of the home valuation code of conduct on appraisal and mortgage outcomes

Superseded by Working Paper 15-28. During the housing crisis, it came to be recognized that inflated home mortgage appraisals were widespread during the subprime boom. The New York State Attorney General?s office investigated this issue with respect to one particular lender and Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The investigation resulted in an agreement between the Attorney General?s office, the government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs), and the Federal Housing Finance Agency (the GSEs? federal regulator) in 2008, in which the GSEs agreed to adopt the Home Valuation Code of Conduct (HVCC). Using ...
Working Papers , Paper 14-23

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