Tax competition among U.S. states: racing to the bottom or riding on a seesaw?
This paper provides an empirical analysis of the determination of capital tax policy by U.S. states based on new panel data, a new econometric technique, and a new theoretical model. The analysis is undertaken with a panel data set covering all 48 contiguous states for the period 1969 to 2004 and is guided by the theory of strategic tax competition. The latter suggests that capital tax policy is a function of out-of-state tax policy, in-state and out-of-state economic conditions, and, perhaps most importantly, preferences for government services. Using the Common Correlated Effects Pooled ...
Finance constraints, liquidity, and investment spending: theoretical restrictions and international evidence
Theoretical and empirical models of investment spending have treated financial structure very differently. Recent research has begun to narrow this gap and, based on developments in the economics of information, has drawn theoretical links between investment spending and the frictions and constraints in financial markets. Furthermore, the sensitivity of investment to liquidity and other financial variables has been documented empirically for several industrialized countries. Despite this progress, the theoretical advances have not been exploited fully in econometric work, and questions remain ...
Job creation tax credits and job growth: whether, when, and where?
This paper studies the effects of Job Creation Tax Credits (JCTCs) enacted by U.S. states over the past 20 years. First, we investigate whether JCTCs stimulate within-state job growth. Second, we assess from where any increased employment comes from ? in-state or out-of-state? Third, we evaluate when JCTCs' effects occur. In particular, we test for negative anticipation effects between JCTC enactment and when legislation goes into effect. We investigate these questions using a difference-in-differences estimator applied to monthly panel data on employment, the JCTC value, the JCTC effective ...
Financial innovations, money demand, and disaggregation: some time series evidence
This paper explores the instability in estimated money demand functions. Using a new data series on credit card usage, we evaluate the role of financial innovations in stabilizing the M1 demand function over three troubling episodes. We find that our measure of financial innovations improves the short-term predictive ability of the M1 demand function, but does not generate stable long-run elasticities. Structural instability remains even after accounting for seasonal adjustment, the turbulence in the second and third quarters of 1980, and an alternative transactions measure. ; Financial ...
Fiscal Foresight and Real Distortions to Firm Behavior: Anticipatory Dips and Compensating Rebounds
We study the conditions under which fiscal foresight – forward-looking agents anticipating future policy changes – distorts economic behavior through undesired intertemporal tradeoffs. Somewhat surprisingly, fiscal foresight is far from sufficient for policy and incentives to perversely affect firm behavior. Three necessary conditions are identified for distorting behavior: storable output, diminishing returns, and a non-competitive output market. These conditions suggest that the estimated impacts of fiscal policies may be sensitive to underlying economic characteristics and that ...
A framework for assessing depository institution risk